"Fārsi" written in Persian (Nastaʿlīq script)
|Ethnicity||Persian people (incl. Tajiks and Hazaras)|
|45 million (2007) – 60 million (2009)|
(110 million total speakers)
Official language in
Template:AFG (as Dari)
Template:TJK (as Tajik)
pes – Western Persian
prs – Dari language (Afghan Persian)
tgk – Tajiki
aiq – Aimaq dialect
bhh – Bukhori dialect
haz – Hazaragi dialect
jpr – Judeo-Persian
phv – Pahlavani
deh – Dehwari
jdt – Judeo-Tat
ttt – Caucasian Tat
Areas with significant numbers of Persian speakers (including dialects).
Countries where Persian is an official language.
Persian (// or //), also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی fārsi [fɒːɾˈsiː] ( listen)), the predominant modern descendant of Old Persian, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan (officially known as Dari since 1958 for political reasons), and Tajikistan (officially known as Tajiki since the Soviet era for political reasons), and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies.
The Persian language is classified as a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of the Sasanian Empire, itself a continuation of Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenid Empire. Persian is a pluricentric language and its grammar is similar to that of many contemporary European languages. Persian gets its name from its origin at the capital of the Achaemenid Empire, Persis, modern-day Fars Province, hence the name Persian (Farsi). A Persian-speaking person may be referred to as Persophone.
There are approximately 110 million Persian speakers worldwide, with the language holding official status in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan. For centuries, Persian has also been a prestigious cultural language in other regions of Western Asia, Central Asia, and South Asia by the various empires based in the regions.
Persian has had a considerable (mainly lexical) influence on neighboring languages, particularly the Turkic languages in Central Asia, Caucasus, and Anatolia, neighboring Iranian languages, as well as Armenian, Georgian, and Indo-Aryan languages, especially Urdu. It also exerted some influence on Arabic, particularly Bahrani Arabic, while borrowing much vocabulary from it after the Muslim conquest of Persia.
With a long history of literature in the form of Middle Persian before Islam, Persian was the first language in the Muslim world to break through Arabic's monopoly on writing, and the writing of poetry in Persian was established as a court tradition in many eastern courts. Some of the famous works of Persian literature are the Shahnameh of Ferdowsi, the works of Rumi, the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, the Divān of Hafez and the two miscellanea of prose and verse by Saadi Shirazi, the Golestān "Rose Garden" and the Bustān "The Garden" (literally "Place of Fragrance").
Classification[edit | edit source]
Persian is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-European family. Other Western Iranian languages are the Kurdish languages, Gilaki, Mazanderani, Talysh, and Balochi. Persian is classified as a member of the Southwestern subgroup within Western Iranian along with Lari, Kumzari, and Luri.
Etymology[edit | edit source]
Persian language name in Persian[edit | edit source]
In Persian, the language is known by several names:
- Western Persian or Farsi (فارسی fārsi or زبان فارسی zabān-e fārsi) has been the name used by all native speakers until the 20th century. Since the latter decades of the 20th century, for political reasons, in English, Farsi has become the name of the Persian language as it is spoken in Iran.
- Dari (دری darī or فارسی دری fārsi-ye dari) was originally a synonym for Fārsi but since the latter decades of the 20th century has become the name for the variety of Western Persian spoken in Afghanistan, where it is one of the two official languages; it is sometimes called Afghan Persian in English.
- Tajiki (тоҷикӣ, تاجیکی tojikī or забони тоҷикӣ / فارسی تاجیکی zabon-i tojiki) is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan by the Tajiks.
Persian language name in English[edit | edit source]
Persian, the historically more widely used name of the language in English, is an anglicized form derived from Latin *Persianus < Latin Persia < Greek Περσίς Persís "Persia", a Hellenized form of Old Persian Parsa. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term Persian as a language name is first attested in English in the mid-16th century. Native Iranian Persian speakers call it Fārsi. Farsi is the Arabicized form of Pārsi, subsequent to Muslim conquest of Persia, due to a lack of the phoneme /p/ in Standard Arabic (i.e., the /p/ was replaced with an /f/). The origin of the name Farsi and the place of origin of the language which is Fars Province is the Arabicized form of Pārs. In English, this language has historically been known as "Persian", though "Farsi" has also gained some currency. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term Farsi was first used in English in 1926, while Parsi dates to 1790. "Farsi" is encountered in some linguistic literature as a name for the language, used both by Iranian and by foreign authors.
The Academy of Persian Language and Literature has declared that the name "Persian" is more appropriate, as it has the longer tradition in western languages and better expresses the role of the language as a mark of cultural and national continuity. Some Persian language scholars such as Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, and University of Arizona professor Kamran Talattof, have also rejected the usage of "Farsi" in their articles.
The international language-encoding standard ISO 639-1 uses the code "fa", as its coding system is mostly based on the local names. The more detailed standard ISO 639-3 uses the name "Persian" (code "fas") for the dialect continuum spoken across Iran and Afghanistan. This consists of the individual languages Dari (Afghan Persian) and Iranian Persian.
Currently, Voice of America, BBC World Service, Deutsche Welle, and Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty use "Persian Service" for their broadcasts in the language. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty also includes a Tajik service and an Afghan (Dari) service. This is also the case for the American Association of Teachers of Persian, The Centre for Promotion of Persian Language and Literature, and many of the leading scholars of Persian language.
History[edit | edit source]
Persian is an Iranian language belonging to the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family of languages. In general, Iranian languages are known from three periods, usually referred to as Old, Middle, and New (Modern) periods. These correspond to three eras in Iranian history; Old era being the period from sometime before Achaemenids, the Achaemenid era and sometime after Achaemenids (that is to 400–300 BC), Middle era being the next period most officially Sassanid era and sometime in post-Sassanid era, and the New era being the period afterwards down to present day.
According to available documents, the Persian language is "the only Iranian language" for which close philological relationships between all of its three stages are established and so that Old, Middle, and New Persian represent one and the same language of Persian; that is, New Persian is a direct descendant of Middle and Old Persian.
The known history of the Persian language can be divided into the following three distinct periods:
Old Persian[edit | edit source]
As a written language, Old Persian is attested in royal Achaemenid inscriptions. The oldest known text written in Old Persian is from the Behistun Inscription. Examples of Old Persian have been found in what is now present-day Iran, Romania (Gherla), Armenia, Bahrain, Iraq, Turkey and Egypt. Old Persian is one of the oldest Indo-European languages which is attested in original texts.
Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 BC, which is at a time when Old Persian was the only form of Persian used. He relates that the Armenians spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians.
Middle Persian[edit | edit source]
The complex grammatical conjugation and declension of Old Persian yielded to the structure of Middle Persian in which the dual number disappeared, leaving only singular and plural, as did gender. Middle Persian developed the ezāfe construction, expressed through ī (modern ye), to indicate some of the relations between words that have been lost with the simplification of the earlier grammatical system.
Although the "middle period" of the Iranian languages formally begins with the fall of the Achaemenid Empire, the transition from Old to Middle Persian had probably already begun before the 4th century. However, Middle Persian is not actually attested until 600 years later when it appears in the Sassanid era (224–651) inscriptions, so any form of the language before this date cannot be described with any degree of certainty. Moreover, as a literary language, Middle Persian is not attested until much later, to the 6th or 7th century. And from the 8th century onward, Middle Persian gradually began yielding to New Persian, with the middle-period form only continuing in the texts of Zoroastrianism.
The native name of Middle Persian was Parsig or Parsik, after the name of the ethnic group of the southwest, that is, "of Pars", Old Persian Parsa, New Persian Fars. This is the origin of the name Farsi as it is today used to signify New Persian. Following the collapse of the Sassanid state, Parsik came to be applied exclusively to (either Middle or New) Persian that was written in the Arabic script. From about the 9th century onwards, as Middle Persian was on the threshold of becoming New Persian, the older form of the language came to be erroneously called Pahlavi, which was actually but one of the writing systems used to render both Middle Persian as well as various other Middle Iranian languages. That writing system had previously been adopted by the Sassanids (who were Persians, i.e. from the southwest) from the preceding Arsacids (who were Parthians, i.e. from the northeast). While Ibn al-Muqaffa' (eighth century) still distinguished between Pahlavi (i.e. Parthian) and Persian (in Arabic text: al-Farisiyah) (i.e. Middle Persian), this distinction is not evident in Arab commentaries written after that date.
Gernot Windfuhr considers new Persian as an evolution of the Old Persian language and the Middle Persian language but also states that none of the known Middle Persian dialects is the direct predecessor of Modern Persian. Ludwig Paul states: "The language of the Shahnameh should be seen as one instance of continuous historical development from Middle to New Persian."
New Persian[edit | edit source]
The history of New Persian itself spans more than 1000 to 1200 years. The development of the language in its last period is often divided into three stages dubbed early, classical, and contemporary. Native speakers of the language can in fact understand early texts in Persian with minimal adjustment, because the morphology and, to a lesser extent, the lexicon of the language have remained relatively stable for the greater part of a millennium.
Early New Persian[edit | edit source]
New Persian developed from the eighth century on as an independent literary language. Upon the decline of the Abbasid Caliphate at Baghdad in the ninth century began the reestablishment of Persian national life and Persians laid the foundations for a renaissance in the realm of letters. New Persian was born in Bactria through the adaptation of the spoken form of Sassanian Middle Persian court language called Dari. The cradle of the Persian literary renaissance lay in the east of Greater Iran in Greater Khorasan and Transoxiana close to the Amu Darya.
The mastery of the newer speech having now been transformed from Middle into New Persian was already complete by the era of the three princely dynasties of Iranian origin, the Tahirid dynasty (820–872), Saffarid dynasty (860–903) and Samanid Empire (874–999), and could develop only in range and power of expression.
Abbas of Merv is mentioned as being the earliest minstrel to chant verse in the newer Persian tongue and after him the poems of Hanzala Badghisi were among the most famous between the Persian-speakers of the time.
The first poems of the Persian language, a language historically called Dari, emerged in Afghanistan. The first significant Persian poet was Rudaki. He flourished in the 10th century, when the Samanids were at the height of their power. His reputation as a court poet and as an accomplished musician and singer has survived, although little of his poetry has been preserved. Among his lost works is versified fables collected in the Kalila wa Dimna.
The language spread geographically from the 11th century on and was the medium through which among others, Central Asian Turks became familiar with Islam and urban culture. New Persian was widely used as a trans-regional lingua franca, a task for which it was particularly suitable due to its relatively simple morphological structure and this situation persisted until at least 19th century. In the late Middle Ages, new Islamic literary languages were created on the Persian model: Ottoman Turkish, Chagatai and Urdu, which are regarded as "structural daughter languages" of Persian.
Classical Persian[edit | edit source]
The Muslim conquest of Persia marks the beginning of the new history of Persian language and literature. This period produced world class Persian language poets and the language served, for a long span of time, as the lingua franca of major parts of the Muslim world and South Asia. It was also the official and cultural language of many Islamic dynasties, including the Samanids, Buyids, Tahirids, Ziyarids, the Mughal Empire, Timurids, Ghaznavids, Seljuqs, Khwarazmians, the Sultanate of Rum, the Shirvanshahs, Safavids, Afsharids, Zands, Qajars, Ottomans and also many Mughal successors such as the Nizam of Hyderabad. For example, Persian was the only non-European language known and used by Marco Polo at the Court of Kublai Khan and in his journeys through China. The heavy influence of Persian on other languages can still be witnessed across the Islamic world, especially, and it is still appreciated as a literary and prestigious language among the educated elite, especially in fields of music (for example, qawwalis) and art (Persian literature). After the Arab invasion of Persia, Persian began to adopt many words from Arabic and as time went by, a few words were even taken from Turco-Mongol languages under the Mongol Empire and Turko-Persian tradition.
Use in Asia Minor[edit | edit source]
Despite Anatolia having been ruled at various times prior to the Middle Ages by various Persian-speaking dynasties originating in Iran, the language lost its traditional foothold there with the demise of the Sasanian Empire. Centuries later however, the practise and usage of Persian in the region would be strongly revived. A branch of the Seljuks, the Sultanate of Rum, took Persian language, art and letters to Anatolia. They adopted Persian language as the official language of the empire. The Ottomans, which can roughly be seen as their eventual successors, took this tradition over. Persian was the official court language of the empire, and for some time, the official language of the empire. The educated and noble class of the Ottoman Empire all spoke Persian, such as sultan Selim I, despite being Safavid Iran's archrival and a staunch opposer of Shia Islam. It was a major literary language in the empire. Some of the noted earlier Persian works during the Ottoman rule are Idris Bidlisi's Hasht Bihisht, which begun in 1502 and covered the reign of the first eight Ottoman rulers, and the Salim-Namah, a glorification of Selim I. After a period of several centuries, Ottoman Turkish (which was highly Persianised itself) had developed towards a fully accepted language of literature, which was even able to satisfy the demands of a scientific presentation. However, the number of Persian and Arabic loanwords contained in those works increased at times up to 88%.
Use in South Asia[edit | edit source]
The Persian language influenced the formation of many modern languages in West Asia, Europe, Central Asia, and South Asia. Following the Turko-Persian Ghaznavid conquest of South Asia, Persian was firstly introduced in the region by Turkic Central Asians. The basis in general for the introduction of Persian language into the subcontinent was set, from its earliest days, by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties. For five centuries prior to the British colonization, Persian was widely used as a second language in the Indian subcontinent, due to the admiration the Mughals (who were of Turco-Mongol origin) had for the foreign language. It took prominence as the language of culture and education in several Muslim courts on the subcontinent and became the sole "official language" under the Mughal emperors. Beginning in 1843, though, English and Hindustani gradually replaced Persian in importance on the subcontinent. Evidence of Persian's historical influence there can be seen in the extent of its influence on certain languages of the Indian subcontinent. Words borrowed from Persian are still quite commonly used in certain Indo-Aryan languages, especially Urdu, also historically known as Hindustani. There is also a small population of Zoroastrian Iranis in India, who migrated around 16th-18th century to escape religious execution in Qajar Iran and speak a Dari dialect.
Contemporary Persian[edit | edit source]
Since the nineteenth century, Russian, French and English and many other languages have contributed to the technical vocabulary of Persian. The Iranian National Academy of Persian Language and Literature is responsible for evaluating these new words in order to initiate and advise their Persian equivalents. The language itself has greatly developed during the centuries.
Varieties[edit | edit source]
There are three modern varieties of standard Persian:
- Western Persian (Persian, Iranian Persian, or Farsi) is spoken in Iran, and by minorities in Iraq and the Persian Gulf states.
- Dari (Dari Persian, Afghan Persian, or Dari) is spoken in Afghanistan.
- Tajiki (Tajik Persian) is spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. It is written in the Cyrillic script.
All these three varieties are based on the classic Persian literature and its literary tradition. There are also several local dialects from Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan which slightly differ from the standard Persian. The Hazaragi dialect (in Central Afghanistan and Pakistan), Herati (in Western Afghanistan), Darwazi (in Afghanistan and Tajikistan), and the Tehrani accent (in Iran, the basis of standard Iranian Persian) are examples of these dialects. Persian-speaking peoples of Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan can understand one another with a relatively high degree of mutual intelligibility.
The following are some languages closely related to Persian, or in some cases are considered dialects:
- Luri (or Lori), spoken mainly in the southwestern Iranian provinces of Lorestan, Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, some western parts of Fars Province and some parts of Khuzestan Province.
- Lari (in southern Iran)
- Tat, spoken in parts of Azerbaijan, Russia, and Transcaucasia. It is classified as a variety of Persian.
- Judeo-Tat. Part of the Tat Persian continuum, and spoken in Azerbaijan, Russia, as well as notably by immigrant communities in Israel and New York.
Phonology[edit | edit source]
Iranian Persian has six vowels and twenty-three consonants.
Vowels[edit | edit source]
Historically, Persian has distinguished length: Early New Persian possessed a series of five long vowels (/iː/, /uː/, /ɒː/, /oː/ and /eː/) along with three short vowels /æ/, /i/ and /u/. At some point prior to the sixteenth century within the general area that is today encompassed by modern Iran, /eː/ and /iː/ merged into /iː/, and /oː/ and /uː/ merged into /uː/. Thus, the older contrasts such as شیر shēr "lion" vs. شیر shīr "milk", and رود rūd "river" vs رود rōd "bow-string" were lost. However, there are exceptions to this rule, and in some words "ē" and "ō" are preserved or merged into the diphthongs [eɪ] and [oʊ] (which are descendants of the diphthongs [æɪ] and [æʊ] in Early New Persian), instead of merging into /iː/ and /uː/. Examples of this exception can be found in words such as روشن [roʊʃæn] (bright).
However, in the eastern varieties, the archaic distinction of /eː/ and /iː/ (respectively known as یای مجهول Yā-ye majhūl and یای معروف Yā-ye ma'rūf) is still preserved, as well as the distinction of /oː/ and /uː/ (known as واو مجهول Wāw-e majhūl and واو معروف Wāw-e ma'rūf). On the other hand, in standard Tajik, the length distinction has disappeared and /iː/ merged with /i/, and /uː/ with /u/. Therefore, contemporary Afghan Dari dialects are the closest one can get to the vowel inventory of Early New Persian.
According to most studies on the subject (e.g. Samareh 1977, Pisowicz 1985, Najafi 2001), the three vowels which are traditionally considered long (/i/, /u/, /ɒ/) are currently distinguished from their short counterparts (/e/, /o/, /æ/) by position of articulation, rather than by length. However, there are studies (e.g. Hayes 1979, Windfuhr 1979) which consider vowel length to be the active feature of this system, i.e. /ɒ/, /i/, and /u/ are phonologically long or bimoraic whereas /æ/, /e/, and /o/ are phonologically short or monomoraic.
There are also some studies which consider quality and quantity to be both active in the Iranian system (e.g. Toosarvandani 2004). This view offers a synthetic analysis which includes both quality and quantity, often suggesting that modern Persian vowels are in a transition state between the quantitative system of classical Persian and a hypothetical future Persian which will eliminate all traces of quantity, and retain quality as the only active feature.
The length distinction is nevertheless strictly observed by careful reciters of classic-style poetry, for all varieties (including the Tajik).
Consonants[edit | edit source]
|Plosive||p b||t d||k ɡ||(ɢ)|
|Fricative||f v||s z||ʃ ʒ||x ɣ||h|
Grammar[edit | edit source]
Morphology[edit | edit source]
- Suffixes predominate Persian morphology, though there are a small number of prefixes. Verbs can express tense and aspect, and they agree with the subject in person and number. There is no grammatical gender in Persian, nor are pronouns marked for natural gender.
Syntax[edit | edit source]
Normal declarative sentences are structured as "(S) (PP) (O) V". This means sentences can comprise optional subjects, prepositional phrases, and objects, followed by a required verb. If the object is specific, then the object is followed by the word rā and precedes prepositional phrases: "(S) (O + rā) (PP) V".
Vocabulary[edit | edit source]
Native word formation[edit | edit source]
Persian makes extensive use of word building and combining affixes, stems, nouns and adjectives. Persian frequently uses derivational agglutination to form new words from nouns, adjectives, and verbal stems. New words are extensively formed by compounding – two existing words combining into a new one, as is common in German.
Influences[edit | edit source]
While having a lesser influence on Arabic and other languages of Mesopotamia and its core vocabulary being of Middle Persian origin, New Persian contains a considerable amount of Arabic lexical items, which were Persianized and often took a different meaning and usage than the Arabic original. Persian loanwords of Arabic origin especially include Islamic terms. The Arabic vocabulary in other Iranian, Turkic and Indic languages are generally understood to have been copied from New Persian, not from Arabic itself.
John R. Perry, in his article Lexical Areas and Semantic Fields of Arabic, estimates that about 24 percent of an everyday vocabulary of 20,000 words in current Persian, and more than 25 percent of the vocabulary of classical and modern Persian literature, are of Arabic origin. The text frequency of these loan words is generally lower and varies by style and topic area. It may approach 25 percent of a text in literature. Among the Arabic loan words, relatively few (14 percent) are from the semantic domain of material culture, while a larger number are from domains of intellectual and spiritual life. Most of the Arabic words used in Persian are either synonyms of native terms or could be glossed in Persian.
The inclusion of Mongolian and Turkic elements in the Persian language should also be mentioned, not only because of the political role a succession of Turkic dynasties played in Iranian history, but also because of the immense prestige Persian language and literature enjoyed in the wider (non-Arab) Islamic world, which was often ruled by sultans and emirs with a Turkic background. The Turkish and Mongolian vocabulary in Persian is minor in comparison to that of Arabic and these words were mainly confined to military, pastoral terms and political sector (titles, administration, etc.). New military and political titles were coined based partially on Middle Persian (e.g. ارتش arteš for "army", instead of the Uzbek قؤشین qoʻshin; سرلشکر sarlaškar; دریابان daryābān; etc.) in the 20th century. Persian has likewise influenced the vocabularies of other languages, especially other Indo-European languages such as Armenian, Urdu, and (to a lesser extent) Hindi; the latter two through conquests of Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan invaders; Turkic languages such as Ottoman Turkish, Chagatai, Tatar, Turkish, Turkmen, Azeri, Uzbek, and Karachay-Balkar; Caucasian languages such as Georgian, and to a lesser extent, Avar and Lezgin; Afro-Asiatic languages like Assyrian (List of loanwords in Assyrian Neo-Aramaic) and Arabic; and even Dravidian languages indirectly especially Telugu and Brahui; as well as Austronesian languages such as Indonesian and Malay. Persian has also had a significant lexical influence, via Turkish, on Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, and Serbo-Croatian, particularly as spoken in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Use of occasional foreign synonyms instead of Persian words can be a common practice in everyday communications as an alternative expression. In some instances in addition to the Persian vocabulary, the equivalent synonyms from multiple foreign languages can be used. For example, in Iranian colloquial Persian (not in Afghanistan or Tajikistan), the phrase "thank you" may be expressed using the French word مرسی merci (stressed however on the first syllable), the hybrid Persian-Arabic phrase متشکّر ام motešakker am (متشکّر motešakker being "merciful" in Arabic, commonly pronounced motčakker in Persian, and the verb ام am meaning "I am" in Persian), or by the pure Persian phrase سپاسگزار ام sepās-gozār am.
Orthography[edit | edit source]
The vast majority of modern Iranian Persian and Dari text is written with the Arabic script. Tajiki, which is considered by some linguists to be a Persian dialect influenced by Russian and the Turkic languages of Central Asia, is written with the Cyrillic script in Tajikistan (see Tajik alphabet).
Persian alphabet[edit | edit source]
Modern Iranian Persian and Afghan Persian are written using a modified variant of the Arabic alphabet, which uses different pronunciation and additional letters not found in Arabic. Tajik Persian, as used in Tajikistan, is typically written in a modified version of the Cyrillic script. There also exist several romanization systems for Persian. After the Muslim conquest of Persia, it took approximately 150 years before Persians adopted the Arabic script in place of the older alphabet. Previously, two different scripts were used, Pahlavi, used for Middle Persian, and the Avestan alphabet (in Persian, Dīndapirak or Din Dabire—literally: religion script), used for religious purposes, primarily for the Avestan but sometimes for Middle Persian.
In the modern Persian script, historically short vowels are usually not written, only the historically long ones are represented in the text, so words distinguished from each other only by short vowels are ambiguous in writing: Western Persian kerm "worm", karam "generosity", kerem "cream", and krom "chrome" are all spelled krm (کرم) in Persian. The reader must determine the word from context. The Arabic system of vocalization marks known as harakat is also used in Persian, although some of the symbols have different pronunciations. For example, a ḍammah is pronounced [ʊ~u], while in Iranian Persian it is pronounced [o]. This system is not used in mainstream Persian literature; it is primarily used for teaching and in some (but not all) dictionaries.
There are several letters generally only used in Arabic loanwords. These letters are pronounced the same as similar Persian letters. For example, there are four functionally identical letters for /z/ (ز ذ ض ظ), three letters for /s/ (س ص ث), two letters for /t/ (ط ت), two letters for /h/ (ح ه). On the other hand, there are four letters that don't exist in Arabic پ چ ژ گ.
Additions[edit | edit source]
The Persian alphabet adds four letters to the Arabic alphabet:
|/ʒ/||ژ||že (zhe or jhe)|
Variations[edit | edit source]
The Persian alphabet also modifies some letters from the Arabic alphabet. For example, alef with hamza below ( إ ) changes to alef ( ا ); words using various hamzas get spelled with yet another kind of hamza (so that مسؤول becomes مسئول) even though the latter is also correct in Arabic; and teh marbuta ( ة ) changes to heh ( ه ) or teh ( ت ).
The letters different in shape are:
|Arabic Style letter||Persian Style letter||name|
Latin alphabet[edit | edit source]
The International Organization for Standardization has published a standard for simplified transliteration of Persian into Latin, ISO 233-3, titled "Information and documentation – Transliteration of Arabic characters into Latin characters – Part 3: Persian language – Simplified transliteration" but the transliteration scheme is not in widespread use.
Fingilish is Persian using ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is most commonly used in chat, emails and SMS applications. The orthography is not standardized, and varies among writers and even media (for example, typing 'aa' for the [ɒ] phoneme is easier on computer keyboards than on cellphone keyboards, resulting in smaller usage of the combination on cellphones).
Tajik alphabet[edit | edit source]
The Cyrillic script was introduced for writing the Tajik language under the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic in the late 1930s, replacing the Latin alphabet that had been used since the October Revolution and the Persian script that had been used earlier. After 1939, materials published in Persian in the Persian script were banned from the country.
Examples[edit | edit source]
The following text is from Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
|Western Persian||Western Persian IPA||Tajiki||Interlinear gloss|
|همهٔ افراد بشر آزاد به دنیا میآیند و حیثیت و حقوق شان با هم برابر است، همه اندیشه و وجدان دارند و باید در برابر یکدیگر با روح برادری رفتار کنند.||[hæmeje æfrɒde bæʃær ɒzɒd be donjɒ miɒjænd o hejsijæt o hoɢuɢe ʃɒn bɒ hæm bærɒbær æst hæme ʃɒn ændiʃe o vedʒdɒn dɒrænd o bɒjæd dær bærɒbære jekdiɡær bɒ ruhe bærɒdæri ræftɒr konænd]||Ҳамаи афроди башар озод ба дунё меоянд ва ҳайсияту ҳуқуқашон бо ҳам баробар аст, ҳамаашон андешаву виҷдон доранд ва бояд дар баробари якдигар бо рӯҳи бародарӣ рафтор кунанд.||All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.|
See also[edit | edit source]
- The existential "be" and copula in Persian
- Academy of Persian Language and Literature
- List of English words of Persian origin
- List of French loanwords in Persian
- Persian alphabet
- Persian Braille
- Persian grammar
- Persian name
- Persian phonology
- Persianate society
- Romanization of Persian
- Persian language tutorial books for beginners
- Western Iranian languages
References[edit | edit source]
- Samadi, Habibeh; Nick Perkins (2012). Martin Ball. ed. Assessing Grammar: The Languages of Lars. Multilingual Matters. p. 169. ISBN 978-1-84769-637-3.
- "IRAQ". Retrieved 7 November 2014.
- Pilkington, Hilary; Yemelianova, Galina (2004). Islam in Post-Soviet Russia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-203-21769-6. https://books.google.com/books?id=mAfS-PFRLYkC&pg=PA27. , p. 27]: "Among other indigenous peoples of Iranian origin were the Tats, the Talishes and the Kurds"
- Mastyugina, Tatiana; Perepelkin, Lev (1996). An Ethnic History of Russia: Pre-revolutionary Times to the Present. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-313-29315-3. https://books.google.com/books?id=xd3ZnfyRgncC&pg=PA80. , p. 80: "The Iranian Peoples (Ossetians, Tajiks, Tats, Mountain Judaists)"
- Windfuhr, Gernot: The Iranian Languages, Routledge 2009, p. 418.
- Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Farsic – Caucasian Tat". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/fars1254.
- Asta Olesen, "Islam and Politics in Afghanistan, Volume 3", Psychology Press, 1995. pg 205: "There began a general promotion of the Pashto language at the expense of Fārsi – previously dominant at the educational and administrative level – and the term 'Dari' for the Afghan version of Persian came into common use, being officially adopted in 1958"
- Baker, Mona (2001). Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-25517-2. https://books.google.com/books?id=ewBfSBo8rRsC&pg=PA518. , pg 518: "among them the realignment of Central Asian Persian, renamed Tajiki by the Soviet Union"[
- Lazard, Gilbert 1975, "The Rise of the New Persian Language" in Frye, R. N., The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 4, pp. 595–632, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. "The language known as New Persian, which usually is called at this period (early Islamic times) by the name of Dari or Farsi-Dari, can be classified linguistically as a continuation of Middle Persian, the official religious and literary language of Sassanian Iran, itself a continuation of Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenids. Unlike the other languages and dialects, ancient and modern, of the Iranian group such as Avestan, Parthian, Soghdian, Kurdish, Balochi, Pashto, etc., Old Persian, Middle and New Persian represent one and the same language at three states of its history. It had its origin in Fars (the true Persian country from the historical point of view) and is differentiated by dialectical features, still easily recognizable from the dialect prevailing in north-western and eastern Iran."
- Ulrich Ammon, Norbert Dittmar, Klaus J. Mattheier, Peter Trudgill, "Sociolinguistics Hsk 3/3 Series Volume 3 of Sociolinguistics: An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society", Walter de Gruyter, 2006. 2nd edition. pg 1912. Excerpt: "Middle Persian, also called Pahlavi is a direct continuation of old Persian, and was used as the written official language of the country." "However, after the Moslem conquest and the collapse of the Sassanids, the Pahlavi language was gradually replaced by Dari, a variety of Middle Persian, with considerable loan elements from Arabic and Parthian."
- Skjærvø, Prods Oktor (2006). Encyclopedia Iranica, "Iran, vi. Iranian languages and scripts, "new Persian, is "the descendant of Middle Persian" and has been "official language of Iranian states for centuries", whereas for other non-Persian Iranian languages "close genetic relationships are difficult to establish" between their different (Middle and Modern) stages. Modern Yaḡnōbi belongs to the same dialect group as Sogdian, but is not a direct descendant; Bactrian may be closely related to modern Yidḡa and Munji (Munjāni); and Wakhi (Wāḵi) belongs with Khotanese."
- Richard Davis, "Persian" in Josef W. Meri, Jere L. Bacharach, "Medieval Islamic Civilization", Taylor & Francis, 2006. pp. 602–603. "The grammar of New Persian is similar to many contemporary European languages."Similarly, the core vocabulary of Persian continued to be derived from Pahlavi.
- "Persian or Farsi?". parents.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2016-02-27.
- "Modernity and Modernism in Persophone Literary History", Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
- Encyclopædia Britannica: Persian literature, retrieved September 2011.
- Holes, Clive (2001). Dialect, Culture, and Society in Eastern Arabia: Glossary. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-10763-0. https://books.google.com/books?id=bJLjAKH7-rIC&pg=PR30. , p. XXX
- Lazard, Gilbert, "Pahlavi, Pârsi, dari: Les langues d'Iran d'apès Ibn al-Muqaffa" in R.N. Frye, Iran and Islam. In Memory of the late Vladimir Minorsky, Edinburgh University Press, 1971.
- Nushin Namazi (24 November 2008). "Persian Loan Words in Arabic". Retrieved 1 June 2009.
- Classe, Olive (2000). Encyclopedia of literary translation into English. Taylor & Francis. p. 1057. ISBN 1-884964-36-2. https://books.google.com/?id=C1uXah12nHgC&pg=PA1057. "Since the Arab conquest of the country in 7th century AD, many loan words have entered the language (which from this time has been written with a slightly modified version of the Arabic script) and the literature has been heavily influenced by the conventions of Arabic literature."
- Ann K. S. Lambton, Persian grammar, Cambridge University Press 1953. "The Arabic words incorporated into the Persian language have become Persianized".
- Windfuhr, Gernot (1987). Berard Comrie. ed. The World's Major Languages. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 523–546. ISBN 978-0-19-506511-4.
- See Dari – Geographical distribution
- Περσίς. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project.
- Oxford English Dictionary online, s.v. "Persian", draft revision June 2007.
- OED online, s.v. "Pārsi".
- Spooner, Brian (1994). "Dari, Farsi, and Tojiki". In Marashi, Mehdi. Persian Studies in North America: Studies in Honor of Mohammad Ali Jazayery. Leiden: Brill. pp. 177–178. https://books.google.com/books?id=nSdsnqWpuh4C&pg=PA177.
- Spooner, Brian (2012). "Dari, Farsi, and Tojiki". In Schiffman, Harold. Language policy and language conflict in Afghanistan and its neighbors: the changing politics of language choice. Leiden: Brill. p. 94. https://books.google.com/books?id=52aicl9l7rwC&pg=PA94.
- Campbell, George L.; King, Gareth, eds. (2013). "Persian". Compendium of the World's Languages (3rd ed.). Routledge. p. 1339. https://books.google.com/books?id=DWAqAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA1339.
- For example: A. Gharib, M. Bahar, B. Fooroozanfar, J. Homaii, and R. Yasami. Farsi Grammar. Jahane Danesh, 2nd edition, 2001.
- "Pronouncement of the Academy of Persian Language and Literature". Heritage.chn.ir. 19 November 2005. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
- "Persian or Farsi?". Iranian.com. 16 November 1997. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
- "Fársi: "recently appeared language!"". PersianDirect.com. 15 February 2005. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
- "Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: fas". Sil.org. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
- "Kamran Talattof Persian or Farsi? The debate continues". Iranian.com. 16 December 1997. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
- (Skjaervo 2006) vi(2). Documentation.
- cf. (Skjaervo 2006) vi(2). Documentation. Excerpt 1: "Only the official languages Old, Middle, and New Persian represent three stages of one and the same language, whereas close genetic relationships are difficult to establish between other Middle and Modern Iranian languages. Modern Yaḡnōbi belongs to the same dialect group as Sogdian, but is not a direct descendant; Bactrian may be closely related to modern Yidḡa and Munji (Munjāni); and Wakhi (Wāḵi) belongs with Khotanese. Excerpt 2: New Persian, the descendant of Middle Persian and official language of Iranian states for centuries."
- (Schmitt 2008, pp. 80–1)
- Kuhrt 2013, p. 197.
- Frye 1984, p. 103.
- Schmitt 2000, p. 53.
- Roland G. Kent, Old Persian, 1953
- Kent, R. G.: "Old Persian: Grammar Texts Lexicon", page 6. American Oriental Society, 1950.
- (Skjærvø 2006, vi(2). Documentation. Old Persian.)
- Xenophon. Anabasis. pp. IV.v.2–9.
- Comrie, Bernard (2003). The Major Languages of South Asia, the Middle East and Africa. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-93257-3. https://books.google.com/books?id=5IXJ1RbE8-8C. , p. 82. "The evolution of Persian as the culturally dominant language of major parts of the Near East, from Anatolia and Iran, to Central Asia, to northwest India until recent centuries, began with the political domination of these areas by dynasties originating in southwestern province of Iran, Pars, later Arabicised to Fars: first the Achaemenids (599–331 BC) whose official language was Old Persian; then the Sassanids (c. AD 225–651) whose official language was Middle Persian. Hence, the entire country used to be called Perse by the ancient Greeks, a practice continued to this day. The more general designation 'Iran(-shahr)" derives from Old Iranian aryanam (Khshathra)' (the realm) of Aryans'. The dominance of these two dynasties resulted in Old and Middle-Persian colonies throughout the empire, most importantly for the course of the development of Persian, in the north-east i.e., what is now Khorasan, northern Afghanistan and Central Asia, as documented by the Middle Persian texts of the Manichean found in the oasis city of Turfan in Chinese Turkistan (Sinkiang). This led to certain degree of regionalisation".
- Comrie, Bernard (1990) The major languages of South Asia, the Middle East and Africa, Taylor & Francis, p. 82
- Barbara M. Horvath, Paul Vaughan, Community languages, 1991, p. 276
- L. Paul (2005), "The Language of the Shahnameh in historical and dialectical perspective", p. 150: "The language of the Shahnameh should be seen as one instance of continuous historical development from Middle to New Persian.", in Weber, Dieter; MacKenzie, D. N. (2005). Languages of Iran: Past and Present: Iranian Studies in Memoriam David Neil MacKenzie. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. ISBN 978-3-447-05299-3. https://books.google.com/books?id=4sz3YuyMJ5gC.
- Jeremias, Eva M. (2004). "Iran, iii. (f). New Persian". Encyclopaedia of Islam. 12 (New Edition, Supplement ed.). p. 432. ISBN 90-04-13974-5.
- Johanson, Lars, and Christiane Bulut. 2006. Turkic-Iranian contact areas: historical and linguistic aspects. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.
- Jackson, A. V. Williams. 1920. Early Persian poetry, from the beginnings down to the time of Firdausi. New York: The Macmillan Company. pp.17–19. (in Public Domain)
- Jackson, A. V. Williams.pp.17–19.
- Adamec, Ludwig W. (2011). Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan (4th Revised ed.). Scarecrow. p. 105. ISBN 978-0-8108-7815-0.
- John Andrew Boyle, Some thoughts on the sources for the Il-Khanid period of Persian history, in Iran: Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies, British Institute of Persian Studies, vol. 12 (1974), p. 175.
- de Laet, Sigfried J. (1994). History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century. UNESCO. ISBN 978-92-3-102813-7. https://books.google.com/books?id=PvlthkbFU1UC&pg=PA734. , p 734
- Ágoston, Gábor; Masters, Bruce Alan (2010). Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4381-1025-7. https://books.google.com/books?id=QjzYdCxumFcC&pg=PA322. , p 322
- Doris Wastl-Walter. The Ashgate Research Companion to Border Studies Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2011 ISBN 0754674061 p 409
- Bertold Spuler. Persian Historiography & Geography Pustaka Nasional Pte Ltd ISBN 9971774887 p 68
- Franklin D. Lewis. Rumi - Past and Present, East and West: The Life, Teachings, and Poetry of Jal l al-Din Rumi Oneworld Publications, 18 okt. 2014 ISBN 1780747373
- Bertold Spuler. Persian Historiography & Geography Pustaka Nasional Pte Ltd ISBN 9971774887 p 69
- "South Asian Sufis: Devotion, Deviation, and Destiny". Retrieved 2 January 2015.
- Clawson, Patrick (2004). Eternal Iran. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 6. ISBN 1-4039-6276-6.
- Beeman, William. "Persian, Dari and Tajik" (PDF). Brown University. Archived from the original on 30 March 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
- Gernot Windfuhr, "Persian Grammar: history and state of its study", Walter de Gruyter, 1979. pg 4:""Tat- Persian spoken in the East Caucasus""
- V. Minorsky, "Tat" in M. Th. Houtsma et al., eds., The Encyclopædia of Islam: A Dictionary of the Geography, Ethnography and Biography of the Muhammadan Peoples, 4 vols. and Suppl., Leiden: Late E.J. Brill and London: Luzac, 1913–38.
- V. Minorsky, "Tat" in M. Th. Houtsma et al., eds., The Encyclopædia of Islam: A Dictionary of the Geography, Ethnography and Biography of the Muhammadan Peoples, 4 vols. and Suppl., Leiden: Late E.J. Brill and London: Luzac, 1913–38. Excerpt: "Like most Persian dialects, Tati is not very regular in its characteristic features"
- C Kerslake, Journal of Islamic Studies (2010) 21 (1): 147–151. excerpt: "It is a comparison of the verbal systems of three varieties of Persian—standard Persian, Tat, and Tajik—in terms of the 'innovations' that the latter two have developed for expressing finer differentiations of tense, aspect and modality..." 
- Borjian, Habib (2006). "Tabari Language Materials from Il'ya Berezin's Recherches sur les dialectes persans". Iran & the Caucasus 10 (2): 243–258. , "It embraces Gilani, Ta- lysh, Tabari, Kurdish, Gabri, and the Tati Persian of the Caucasus, all but the last belonging to the north-western group of Iranian language."
- Perry, J. R. (2005) A Tajik Persian Reference Grammar (Boston : Brill) ISBN 90-04-14323-8
- Megerdoomian, Karine (2000). "Persian computational morphology: A unification-based approach" (PDF). Memoranda in Computer and Cognitive Science: MCCS-00-320. p. 1.
- Mahootian, Shahrzad (1997). Persian. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-02311-4. https://books.google.com/?id=DHqUjnN2_YwC&pg=PR1&dq=Mahootian+Shahrzad+1997.
- John R. Perry, "Lexical Areas and Semantic Fields of Arabic" in Éva Ágnes Csató, Eva Agnes Csato, Bo Isaksson, Carina Jahani, Linguistic convergence and areal diffusion: case studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic, Routledge, 2005. pg 97: "It is generally understood that the bulk of the Arabic vocabulary in the central, contiguous Iranian, Turkic and Indic languages was originally borrowed into literary Persian between the ninth and thirteenth centuries"
- John R. Perry, "Lexical Areas and Semantic Fields of Arabic" in Éva Ágnes Csató, Eva Agnes Csato, Bo Isaksson, Carina Jahani, Linguistic convergence and areal diffusion: case studies from Iranian, Semitic and Turkic,Routledge, 2005. p.97
- Perry 2005, p.99.
- Perry 2005, p. 99.
- e.g. The role of Azeri-Turkish in Iranian Persian, on which see John Perry, "The Historical Role of Turkish in Relation to Persian of Iran", Iran & the Caucasus, Vol. 5 (2001), pp. 193–200.
- Xavier Planhol, "Land of Iran", Encyclopedia Iranica. "The Turks, on the other hand, posed a formidable threat: their penetration into Iranian lands was considerable, to such an extent that vast regions adapted their language. This process was all the more remarkable since, in spite of their almost uninterrupted political domination for nearly 1,500 years, the cultural influence of these rough nomads on Iran’s refined civilization remained extremely tenuous. This is demonstrated by the mediocre linguistic contribution, for which exhaustive statistical studies have been made (Doerfer). The number of Turkish or Mongol words that entered Persian, though not negligible, remained limited to 2,135, i.e., 3 percent of the vocabulary at the most. These new words are confined on the one hand to the military and political sector (titles, administration, etc.) and, on the other hand, to technical pastoral terms. The contrast with Arab influence is striking. While cultural pressure of the Arabs on Iran had been intense, they in no way infringed upon the entire Iranian territory, whereas with the Turks, whose contributions to Iranian civilization were modest, vast regions of Iranian lands were assimilated, notwithstanding the fact that resistance by the latter was ultimately victorious. Several reasons may be offered."
- "ARMENIA AND IRAN iv. Iranian influences in Armenian Language". Retrieved 2 January 2015.
- "South Asian Sufis: Devotion, Deviation, and Destiny". Retrieved 23 April 2015.
- Andreas Tietze, Persian loanwords in Anatolian Turkish, Oriens, 20 (1967) pp- 125–168. Archived September 11, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- L. Johanson, "Azerbaijan: Iranian Elements in Azeri Turkish" in Encyclopedia Iranica Iranica.com
- George L. Campbell and Gareth King (2013). Compendium of the World Languages. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-1362-5846-6. https://books.google.com/books?id=DWAqAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA832. Retrieved 23 May 2014.
- "GEORGIA v. LINGUISTIC CONTACTS WITH IRANIAN LANGUAGES". Retrieved 2 January 2015.
- "DAGESTAN". Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- Pasad. "Bashgah.net". Bashgah.net. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
- Perry, John R. (2005). A Tajik Persian Reference Grammar. Boston: Brill. ISBN 90-04-14323-8.
- Lazard, Gilbert (1956). "Charactères distinctifs de la langue Tadjik". Bulletin de la Société Linguistique de Paris 52: 117–186.
- "ISO 233-3:1999". Iso.org. 14 May 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
Sources[edit | edit source]
- Kuhrt, A. (2013). The Persian Empire: A Corpus of Sources from the Achaemenid Period. Routledge. ISBN 978-1136016943.
- Frye, Richard Nelson (1984). Handbuch der Altertumswissenschaft: Alter Orient-Griechische Geschichte-Römische Geschichte. Band III,7: The History of Ancient Iran. C.H.Beck. ISBN 978-3406093975.
- Schmitt, Rüdiger (2000). The Old Persian Inscriptions of Naqsh-i Rustam and Persepolis. Corpus Inscriptionum Iranicarum by School of Oriental and African Studies. ISBN 978-0728603141.
Further reading[edit | edit source]
- Asatrian, Garnik (2010). Etymological Dictionary of Persian. Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series, 12. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-18341-4. http://www.brill.nl/default.aspx?partid=227&pid=23589.
- Bleeck, Arthur Henry (1857). A concise grammar of the Persian language. https://books.google.com/books?id=MsAUAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Bleeck, Arthur Henry (1857). A concise grammar of the Persian language: containing dialogues, reading lessons, and a vocabulary: together with a new plan for facilitating the study of languages. B. Quaritch. p. 206. https://books.google.com/books?id=CiBgAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Bleeck, Arthur Henry (1857). A concise grammar of the Persian language (Oxford University ed.). https://books.google.com/books?id=vroOAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Dahlén, Ashk (April 2014) [1st edition October 2010]. Modern persisk grammatik (2nd ed.). Ferdosi International Publication. ISBN 9789197988674. http://www.ashkdahlen.com/index.php?id=152.
- Delshad, Farshid (September 2007). Anthologia Persica. Logos Verlag. ISBN 978-3-8325-1620-8.
- Doctor, Sorabshaw Byramji (1880). The student's Persian and English dictionary, pronouncing, etymological, & explanatory. Irish Presbyterian Mission Press. p. 558. https://books.google.com/books?id=I0MOAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Doctor, Sorabshaw Byramji (1880). Second book of Persian, to which are added the Pandnámah of Shaikh Saádi and the Gulistán, chapter 1, together with vocabulary and short notes (2 ed.). Irish Presbyterian Mission Press. p. 120. https://books.google.com/books?id=xUUOAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Doctor, Sorabshaw Byramji (1879). The Persian primer, being an elementary treatise on grammar, with exercises. Irish Presbyterian Mission Press. p. 94. https://books.google.com/books?id=NEMOAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Doctor, Sorabshaw Byramji (1875). A new grammar of the Persian tongue for the use of schools and colleges. Irish Presbyterian Mission Press. p. 84. https://books.google.com/books?id=M0MOAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Forbes, Duncan (1844). A grammar of the Persian language: To which is added, a selection of easy extracts for reading, together with a copious vocabulary (2 ed.). Printed for the author, sold by Allen & co.. p. 158. https://books.google.com/books?id=bFcOAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Forbes, Duncan (1844). A grammar of the Persian language: To which is added, a selection of easy extracts for reading, together with a copious vocabulary (2 ed.). Printed for the author, sold by Allen & co.. p. 114. https://books.google.com/books?id=DwQtAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Forbes, Duncan (1876). A grammar of the Persian language: to which is added, a selection of easy extracts for reading, together with a vocabulary, and translations. W.H. Allen. p. 238. https://books.google.com/books?id=DoRQAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Forbes, Duncan (1869). A grammar of the Persian language: to which is added, a selection of easy extracts for reading, together with a vocabulary, and translations (4 ed.). W.H. Allen & co.. p. 238. https://books.google.com/books?id=BDoMAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Ibrâhîm, Muḥammad (1841). A grammar of the Persian language. https://books.google.com/books?id=Ru1ncSqiRXkC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Jones, Sir William (1783). A grammar of the Persian language (3 ed.). https://books.google.com/books?id=YkBbAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Jones, Sir William (1797). A grammar of the Persian language (4 ed.). https://books.google.com/books?id=3T9bAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Jones, Sir William (1801). A grammar of the Persian language (5 ed.). Murray and Highley, J. Sewell. p. 194. https://books.google.com/books?id=IEhFAQAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Jones, Sir William (1823). Samuel Lee. ed. A grammar of the Persian language (8 ed.). Printed by W. Nicol, for Parbury, Allen, and co.. p. 230. https://books.google.com/books?id=p4dBAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Jones, Sir William (1828). Samuel Lee. ed. A grammar of the Persian language (9 ed.). Printed by W. Nicol, for Parbury, Allen, and Co.. p. 283. https://books.google.com/books?id=gqIIAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Lazard, Gilbert (January 2006). Grammaire du persan contemporain. Institut Français de Recherche en Iran. ISBN 978-2909961378. http://www.peeters-leuven.be/boekoverz.asp?nr=8392.
- Lumsden, Matthew (1810). A grammar of the Persian language; comprising a portion of the elements of Arabic inflexion etc. Watley. https://books.google.com/books?id=a7dIAAAAcAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Mace, John (18 October 2002). Persian Grammar: For Reference and Revision (illustrated ed.). RoutledgeCurzon. ISBN 0700716955.
- Moises, Edward (1792). The Persian interpreter: in three parts: A grammar of the Persian language. Persian extracts, in prose and verse. A vocabulary: Persian and English. Printed by L. Hodgson. p. 143. https://books.google.com/books?id=O3lHAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Palmer, Edward Henry (1883). Guy Le Strange. ed. A concise dictionary, English-Persian; together with a simplified grammar of the Persian language. Completed and ed. by G. Le Strange. https://books.google.com/books?id=Nz9bAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Palmer, Edward Henry (1883). Guy Le Strange. ed. A concise dictionary, English-Persian: together with a simplified grammar of the Persian language. Trübner. p. 42. https://books.google.com/books?id=hKUfAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Platts, John Thompson (1894). A grammar of the Persian language .... Williams and Norgate. https://books.google.com/books?id=pxKkZZgJxcwC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Ranking, George Speirs Alexander (1907). A primer of Persian: containing selections for reading and composition with the elements of syntax. The Claredon Press. p. 72. https://books.google.com/books?id=9I4PAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Richardson, John (1810). Sir Charles Wilkins. ed. A vocabulary, Persian, Arabic, and English: abridged from the quarto edition of Richardson's dictionary. Printed for F. and C. Rivingson. p. 643. https://books.google.com/books?id=7hZHFh_nVEMC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Rosen, Friedrich (1898). Modern Persian colloquial grammar: containing a short grammar, dialogues and extracts from Nasir-Eddin shah's diaries, tales, etc., and a vocabulary. Luzac & C.̊. p. 400. https://books.google.com/books?id=Exb_NBfBuZkC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 6 July 2011.
- Schmitt, Rüdiger (1989). Compendium linguarum Iranicarum. L. Reichert. ISBN 3882264136.
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|Persian edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia|
- Academy of Persian Language and Literature official website (Persian)
- Assembly for the Expansion of the Persian Language official website (Persian)
- Persian language Resources (Persian)
- Persian Language Resources, parstimes.com
- Haim, Soleiman. New Persian–English dictionary. Teheran: Librairie-imprimerie Beroukhim, 1934–1936. uchicago.edu
- Steingass, Francis Joseph. A Comprehensive Persian–English dictionary. London: Routledge & K. Paul, 1892. uchicago.edu
- UCLA Language Materials Project: Persian, ucla.edu
- How Persian Alphabet Transits into Graffiti, Persian Graffiti
- Basic Persian language course (book + audio files) USA Foreign Service Institute (FSI)
|This article uses material from Persian language on Wikipedia, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (view authors).|