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A fanfare (or fanfarade or flourish) is a short musical flourish that is typically played by trumpets or other brass instruments, often accompanied by percussion (Tarr 2001). It is a "brief improvised introduction to an instrumental performance" (Griffiths 2004). A fanfare has also been defined as "a musical announcement played on brass instruments before the arrival of an important person", such as heralding the entrance of a monarch (Lloyd 1968, 172). Historically, fanfares were usually played by trumpet players, as the trumpet was associated with royalty (Lloyd 1968, 172). Bugles are also mentioned (Davidson 1907). The melody notes of a fanfare are often based around the major triad, often using "[h]eroic dotted rhythms" (Lloyd 1968, 172).