Diamond

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Diamond
A clear octahedral stone protrudes from a black rock.
The slightly misshapen octahedral shape of this rough diamond crystal in matrix is typical of the mineral. Its lustrous faces also indicate that this crystal is from a primary deposit.
General
CategoryNative minerals
Formula
(repeating unit)
C
Strunz classification1.CB.10a
Dana classification1.3.6.1
Crystal symmetryFd3m (No. 227)
Identification
Formula mass12.01 g/mol
ColorTypically yellow, brown, or gray to colorless. Less often blue, green, black, translucent white, pink, violet, orange, purple, and red.
Crystal habitOctahedral
Crystal systemCubic
TwinningSpinel law common (yielding "macle")
Cleavage111 (perfect in four directions)
FractureIrregular/Uneven
Mohs scale hardness10 (defining mineral)
LusterAdamantine
StreakColorless
DiaphaneityTransparent to subtransparent to translucent
Specific gravity3.52±0.01
Density3.5–3.53 g/cm3
Polish lusterAdamantine
Optical propertiesIsotropic
Refractive index2.418 (at 500 nm)
BirefringenceNone
PleochroismNone
Dispersion0.044
Melting pointPressure dependent
References[1][2]

Diamond is a solid form of the element carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal structure called diamond cubic. At room temperature and pressure, another solid form of carbon known as graphite is the chemically stable form, but diamond almost never converts to it. Diamond has the highest hardness and thermal conductivity of any natural material, properties that are utilized in major industrial applications such as cutting and polishing tools. They are also the reason that diamond anvil cells can subject materials to pressures found deep in the Earth.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "Diamond". Mindat. Retrieved July 7, 2009. 
  2. "Diamond". WebMineral. Retrieved July 7, 2009.