Alex Jones (radio host)

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Alex Jones
Alex Jones thumbs up.jpg
Jones in 2009
BornAlexander Emerick Jones
(1974-02-11) February 11, 1974 (age 47)
Dallas, Texas, U.S.
ResidenceAustin, Texas, U.S.
OccupationRadio host, film producer
Known forVarious conspiracy theories such as 9/11 Truth and New World Order theories
Political partyRepublican

Alexander Emerick Jones (born February 11, 1974)[1] is an American far-right[2][3] radio show host, filmmaker, writer,[4] and conspiracy theorist.[5][6][7][8] He hosts The Alex Jones Show from Austin, Texas, which airs on the Genesis Communications Network[9] and shortwave radio station WWCR[10] across the United States and online.[11][12] His website,, has been labeled as a fake news website.[13][14][15][16]

Jones has been the center of many controversies, including his statements in the wake of the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, about it being staged,[17] adding support to Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting conspiracy theories, and as an argument against gun control.[18] He has accused the U.S. government of being involved in the Oklahoma City bombing,[19] the September 11 attacks[20] and the filming of fake Moon landings to hide NASA's secret technology.[21][22][23]

He says that government and big business have colluded to create a New World Order through "manufactured economic crises, sophisticated surveillance tech and—above all—inside-job terror attacks that fuel exploitable hysteria".[24] Jones has described himself as a libertarian and paleoconservative,[25][26] and has been described by others as conservative, right-wing, alt-right,[27] and a pro-Russia propagandist.[28]

New York magazine described Jones as "America's leading conspiracy theorist",[29] and the Southern Poverty Law Center describes him as "the most prolific conspiracy theorist in contemporary America".[30] When asked about these labels, Jones said that he is "proud to be listed as a thought criminal against Big Brother".[29]

Early life[edit | edit source]

Jones was born in 1974 in Dallas, Texas, and grew up in the Dallas suburb of Rockwall and the city of Austin, Texas. His parents were a dentist and a homemaker.[19] In his video podcasts, he reports he is of Irish,[31] German, Welsh, mostly English, and partially Native American descent. He was a lineman on his high school's football team and graduated from Anderson High School in Austin in 1993.[19] As a teenager, he read conservative journalist Gary Allen's None Dare Call It Conspiracy, which had a profound influence on him and which he calls "the easiest-to-read primer on The New World Order".[32] After high school, Jones attended Austin Community College.[33]

Career[edit | edit source]

Jones began his career in Austin with a live, call-in format public-access cable television program.[34] In 1996, Jones switched format to radio, hosting a show named The Final Edition on KJFK (98.9 FM).[35] Ron Paul was running for Congress and was a guest on his show several times.[36] In his early shows, Jones frequently talked about his belief that the United States government was behind the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing,[37] using the incident to put down a growing "states' rights movement".[38] In 1998, he released his first film, America Destroyed By Design.

In 1998, Jones organized a successful effort to build a new Branch Davidian church, as a memorial to those who died during the 1993 fire that ended the government's siege of the original Branch Davidian complex near Waco, Texas.[39] He often featured the project on his public-access television program and claimed that David Koresh and his followers were peaceful people who were murdered by Attorney General Janet Reno and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms during the siege.[35]

In 1999, he tied with Shannon Burke for that year's "Best Austin Talk Radio Host" poll, as voted by The Austin Chronicle readers.[40] Later that year, he was fired from KJFK-FM for refusing to broaden his topics. His views were making the show hard to sell to advertisers, according to the station's operations manager.[35] Jones stated: "It was purely political, and it came down from on high ... I was told 11 weeks ago to lay off Clinton, to lay off all these politicians, to not talk about rebuilding the church, to stop bashing the Marines, A to Z."[35] He began spreading his show by Internet connection from his home.[37]

In early 2000, Jones was one of seven Republican candidates for state representative in Texas House District 48, an open swing district based in Austin, Texas. Jones stated that he was running "to be a watchdog on the inside"[41] but withdrew from the race after a couple of weeks.

In July, a group of Austin Community Access Center (ACAC) programmers claimed that Jones used legal proceedings and ACAC policy to intimidate them or get their shows thrown off the air.[42]

In 2001, his show was syndicated on approximately 100 stations.[37] After the 9/11 attack, Jones began to speak of a conspiracy by the Bush administration as being behind the attack, which caused a number of the stations that had previously carried him to drop his program, according to Will Bunch.[43]

On June 8, 2006, while on his way to cover a meeting of the Bilderberg Group in Ottawa, Jones was stopped and detained at the Ottawa airport by Canadian authorities who confiscated his passport, camera equipment, and most of his belongings. He was later allowed to enter Canada lawfully. Jones said about the reason for his immigration hold, "I want to say, on the record, it takes two to tango. I could have handled it better."[44]

On September 8, 2007, he was arrested while protesting at 6th Avenue and 48th Street in New York City. He was charged with operating a megaphone without a permit. Two others were also cited for disorderly conduct when his group crashed a live television show featuring Geraldo Rivera. In an article, one of Jones' fellow protesters said, "It was ... guerrilla information warfare."[45]

On July 6, 2017, alongside Paul Joseph Watson, Jones began host a contest to create the best "CNN Meme", in which the winner would receive $20,000. The contest was created in response to CNN releasing an article regarding a controversial Reddit user.[46][47]

Radio and websites [edit | edit source] logo

The Alex Jones Show is broadcast nationally by the Genesis Communications Network to more than 90 AM and FM radio stations in the United States,[48] including WWCR, a shortwave radio station.[49] The Sunday show also airs on KLBJ. In 2010, the show attracted around 2 million listeners each week.[50]

According to journalist Will Bunch, a senior fellow at Media Matters for America,[51][52] the show has a demographic heavier in younger viewers than other conservative pundits due to Jones's "highly conspiratorial tone and Web-oriented approach". Bunch has also stated that Jones "feed[s] on the deepest paranoia".[43] According to Alexander Zaitchik of Rolling Stone magazine, in 2011 he had a larger on-line audience than Glenn Beck and Rush Limbaugh combined.[53]

Jones is the operator of the web sites and His website,, has been labeled by media outlets as a fake news website.[13][14][15][16] Infowars editor is Paul Joseph Watson, who also occasionally guest hosts or co-hosts Jones' radio program.

Views[edit | edit source]

Jones during a 9/11 Truth movement event on September 11, 2007, in Manhattan

Mainstream sources have described Jones as a conservative,[54] a conspiracy theorist[55][56][57][58] and an outlet for pro-Russia propaganda[who?]. Jones has described himself as a libertarian[25] and a paleoconservative.[26]

Following the 2016 Republican National Convention, Jones and Roger Stone began plotting the removal of Ted Cruz from his Senate seat in 2018 through potential challengers Katrina Pierson and Dan Patrick.[59] Jones supports Donald Trump and has consistently denounced Hillary Clinton.[60] Jones said that Trump called him on the day after the election to thank him for his help in the campaign.[61]

Controversies[edit | edit source]

Jones has been the center of many controversies, such as the one surrounding his actions and statements about gun control after the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. He has accused the United States government of being involved in the Oklahoma City bombing[19] and the September 11 attacks.[18] Jones was in a "media crossfire" in 2011, which included criticism by Rush Limbaugh, when the news spread that Jared Lee Loughner, the perpetrator of the 2011 Tucson shooting, had been "a fan" of the 9/11 conspiracy film Loose Change of which Jones had been an executive producer.[53] During the 2016 presidential campaign, Hillary Clinton criticized Donald Trump for his ties to Alex Jones.[62][63] In 2017 he was criticized for claiming that the Khan Shaykhun chemical attack was a hoax.[64]

Legal action[edit | edit source]

In February 2017, the lawyers of James Alefantis, owner of Comet Ping Pong pizzeria, sent Jones a letter demanding an apology and retraction for his role in pushing the Pizzagate conspiracy theory. Under Texas law, Jones was given a month to comply or be subject to a libel suit.[65] In March 2017, Alex Jones apologized to Alefantis for promulgating the conspiracy theory and retracted his allegations.[66]

In April 2017, the Chobani yogurt company filed a lawsuit against Jones for his article that claims that the company’s factory in Idaho, which employs refugees, was connected to a 2016 child sexual assault and a rise in tuberculosis cases.[67] As a result of the lawsuit, Jones issued an apology and retraction of his allegations in May 2017.[68]

Television shows and interviews[edit | edit source]

In January 2013, Jones was invited to speak on Piers Morgan's show after promoting an online petition to deport Morgan because of his support of gun control laws.[69] The interview turned into "a one-person shoutfest, as Jones riffed about guns, oppressive government, the flag, his ancestors' role in Texan independence, and what flag Morgan would have on his tights if they wrestled."[69] The event drew widespread coverage,[69] and according to The Huffington Post, Morgan and others such as Glenn Beck "agreed that Jones was a terrible spokesman for gun rights".[70] Jones's appearance on the show was a top trending Twitter topic the following morning.[71]

On June 9, 2013, Jones appeared as a guest on the BBC's television show Sunday Politics, during a discussion about conspiracy theories surrounding the Bilderberg Group meetings with presenter Andrew Neil and journalist David Aaronovitch. A critic of such theories, Aaronovitch implied that they either do not exist or that Jones is a part of them himself. Jones began shouting and interrupting, and Andrew Neil ended the interview, describing Jones as "an idiot"[72] and "the worst person I've ever interviewed".[73][74] According to Neil on Twitter, Jones was still shouting until he knew that he was off-air.[72][73]

Personal life[edit | edit source]

Jones has three children with ex-wife Kelly Jones. The couple divorced in 2015. In 2017, Kelly sought sole or joint custody of their children due to Alex's behavior. She claimed "he's not a stable person" and "I'm concerned that he is engaged in felonious behavior, threatening a member of Congress". Alex's attorney responded that "he's playing a character" and described him as a "performance artist".[75][76] In court, Jones denied playing a character and called his show "the most bona fide, hard-core, real McCoy thing there is, and everybody knows it."[77] The court awarded Kelly the power to decide where their children live.[78]

Media[edit | edit source]

Films[edit | edit source]

Jones and filmgoers at the première of A Scanner Darkly in which Jones has a cameo[37]
Year Film Notes
1998 America: Destroyed by Design
1999 Police State 2000
1999 Are You Practicing Communism? Produced by Mike Hanson
2000 America Wake Up or Waco
2000 The Best of Alex Jones
2000 Dark Secrets Inside Bohemian Grove
2000 Police State II: The Takeover
2001 Comprehensive Annual Financial Reports: Exposed
2001 911 The Road to Tyranny: Special Emergency Release
2002 911 The Road to Tyranny
2002 The Masters of Terror: Exposed
2003 Matrix of Evil
2003 Police State 3: Total Enslavement
2004 American Dictators: Documenting the Staged Election of 2004
2005 Martial Law 9-11: Rise of the Police State
2005 The Order of Death
2006 TerrorStorm: A History of Government-Sponsored Terrorism
2007 Endgame: Blueprint for Global Enslavement
2007 Endgame 1.5
2007 TerrorStorm: A History of Government-Sponsored Terrorism – Second Edition
2007 Loose Change: Final Cut by Dylan Avery Executive producer
2008 The 9/11 Chronicles: Part 1, Truth Rising
2008 Fabled Enemies by Jason Bermas Producer
2009 DVD Arsenal: The Alex Jones Show Vols. 1–3
2009 The Obama Deception: The Mask Comes Off
2009 Fall of the Republic: Vol. 1, The Presidency of Barack H. Obama
2009 Reflections and Warnings: An Interview with Aaron Russo
2010 Police State IV: The Rise Of FEMA
2010 Invisible Empire: A New World Order Defined by Jason Bermas Producer
2012 New World Order: Blueprint of Madmen
2012 Strategic Relocation Producer and director

Author[edit | edit source]

Year Book Publisher
2002 9-11: Descent Into Tyranny Progressive Press
2008 The Answer to 1984 Is 1776 The Disinformation Company

Film subject[edit | edit source]

Year Film Notes
2003 Aftermath: Unanswered Questions from 9/11 by Stephen Marshall
2009 New World Order by Luke Meyer and Andrew Neel
2010 The Fall of America and the Western World by Brian Kraft

Acting[edit | edit source]

Year Film Role
2001 Waking Life Man in Car with P.A. (cameo)
2006 A Scanner Darkly Street Prophet (cameo)
2016 Amerigeddon United States Senator (cameo)

References[edit | edit source]

  1. "Alex Jones - About". Facebook. 1974-02-11. Retrieved 2016-07-22. 
  2. Stack, Liam (14 November 2016). "Globalism: A Far-Right Conspiracy Theory Buoyed by Trump". The New York Times (The New York Times). Retrieved 19 February 2017. 
  3. Griffing, Alexander (March 03, 2017). Who Is Alex Jones? Donald Trump's Favorite Conspiracy Theorist. Haaretz. Retrieved: March 3, 2017.
  4. "Glenn Beck's Shtick? Alex Jones Got There First". Rolling Stone. 
  5. Roig-Franzia, Manuel (November 17, 2016). "How Alex Jones, conspiracy theorist extraordinaire, got Donald Trump’s ear". Washington Post. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  6. Byford, Jovan (2011-10-12). Conspiracy Theories: A Critical Introduction. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 11. ISBN 9780230349216. Retrieved November 23, 2013. 
  7. Alex Seitz-Wald. "Alex Jones: Boston explosion a government conspiracy". Salon. 
  8. "The Scalia conspiracy theories are getting out of hand" (in en-GB). 2016-02-15. 
  9. List of Alex Jones Radio Show Affiliated Stations.
  10. " - Home - WWCR Shortwave, Nashville, Tennessee, USA". 
  11. "All Hell Breaks Loose on The View After 9/11 Truther Cuts Loose". 
  12. "The Alex Jones Show". Tune In. Retrieved January 13, 2013. 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Dicker, Rachel (November 14, 2016). "Avoid These Fake News Sites at All Costs". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved November 27, 2016. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 Roy, Jessica (November 17, 2016). "Want to keep fake news out of your newsfeed? College professor creates list of sites to avoid". LA Times. Retrieved December 15, 2016. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 Blake, Andrew (December 9, 2016). "Infowars’ Alex Jones appeals to Trump for aid over fears of 'fake news' crackdown". Washington Times. Retrieved December 15, 2016. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 Mencimer, Stephanie (12 December 2016). "PizzaGate Shooter Read Alex Jones. Here Are Some Other Fans Who Perpetrated Violent Acts.". Mother Jones. Retrieved 1 January 2017. 
  17. "Trump Ally Alex Jones Doubles Down On Sandy Hook Conspiracy Theories". Mediamatters. November 17, 2016. Retrieved February 14, 2017. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 "Alex Jones' pro-gun tirade at Piers Morgan on British presenter's own show". The Guardian (London). January 8, 2013. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 Zaitchik, Alexander (2011-03-02). "Meet Alex Jones, the Talk Radio Host Behind Charlie Sheen's Crazy Rants". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on March 29, 2011. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  20. Stahl, Jeremy (September 6, 2011). "Where Did 9/11 Conspiracies Come From?". Slate. Retrieved September 11, 2011. 
  21. Nuzzi, Olivia. "Dear Moon Landing Deniers: Sorry I Called You Moon Landing Deniers". The Daily Beast. Retrieved August 27, 2014. 
  22. "Moon Landing Faked!!!—Why People Believe in Conspiracy Theories". April 30, 2013. Retrieved August 4, 2015. 
  23. Zara, Christopher (June 9, 2013). "Alex Jones Blows Up On BBC Sunday Politics For Bilderberg Group Follow-Up: If My Enemies Murder Me, It Makes Me A Martyr". International Business Times. Retrieved August 31, 2014. 
  24. Alexander Zaitchik (March 2, 2011). "Meet Alex Jones". Rolling Stone. Retrieved February 24, 2013. 
  25. 25.0 25.1 Roddy, Dennis B. (April 10, 2009). "An Accused Cop Killer's Politics". Slate. Retrieved July 23, 2009. 
  26. 26.0 26.1 Rosell, Rich (November 27, 2006). "Dark days, the Alex Jones interview". 
  27. Payton, Matt (October 18, 2016). "Hillary Clinton says Donald Trump is using 'alt-right' conspiracy theorist's talking points". The Independent. Retrieved October 23, 2016. 
  28. Russian Disinformation for a Conservative Audience Accuracy in Media. July 17, 2014.
  29. 29.0 29.1 Ciscarelli, Joe. "An Interview With Alex Jones, America’s Leading (and Proudest) Conspiracy Theorist". Retrieved September 8, 2014. 
  30. "Alex Jones Profile". Southern Poverty Law Center. 
  31. The Alex Jones Channel (April 29, 2015). "Baltimore City Councilman Pushes Racial Division". YouTube, Google. Retrieved April 30, 2015. 
  32. "Meet Alex Jones". Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  33. Howard Stern Radio Show, February 26, 2013.
  34. "About Alex Jones". Infowars. 
  35. 35.0 35.1 35.2 35.3 Nichols, Lee (December 10, 1999). "Psst, It's a Conspiracy: KJFK Gives Alex Jones the Boot Media Clips". The Austin Chronicle. 
  36. "How Radio Host Alex Jones Has Cornered the Bipartisan Paranoia Market". New York. Retrieved January 11, 2013. 
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 37.3 "Meet Alex Jones". Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  38. Kay, Jonathan (2011-05-17). Among the Truthers: A Journey Through America's Growing Conspiracist Underground. HarperCollins. pp. 26–. ISBN 9780062004819. Retrieved January 11, 2013. 
  39. Connie Mabin (April 19, 2000). "Branch Davidians hope a new church can close wounds". The Independent. Associated Press (UK). Retrieved January 29, 2011. 
  40. "Best of Austin 1999 Readers Poll". 1999. Retrieved 2007-08-14. 
  41. Scott S. Greenberger (January 4, 2000). "Nine to seek Greenberg's House seat". Austin American-Statesman: p. B1. 
  42. Nichols, Lee (2000-07-14). "Alex Jones: Conspiracy Victim or Evil Mastermind?". The Austin Chronicle. Archived from the original on 2012-01-02. Retrieved 2008-05-20. "Alex Jones is no stranger to conspiracy theories." 
  43. 43.0 43.1 Bunch, Will (2011-09-13). The Backlash: Right-Wing Radicals, High-Def Hucksters, and Paranoid Politics in the Age of Obama. HarperCollins. pp. 73–. ISBN 9780061991721. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  44. Payton, Laura (2006-06-08). "Bilderberg-bound filmmaker held at airport". Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-13. 
  45. Grace, Melissa; Xana O'Neill (2007-09-09). "Filmmaker arrested during city protest". New York Daily News (New York). Archived from the original on October 13, 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-10. 
  46. Holt, Jared (July 7, 2017). "From meme wars to death threats: How far-right internet culture turns into political action" (in en). Media Matters for America. Retrieved July 8, 2017. 
  47. Fearnow, Benjamin (July 6, 2017). "#CNNBlackmail, Trump Trolls: Barrage Of Negative Reviews Tank CNN App Ratings". International Business Times. Retrieved July 8, 2017. 
  48. "GCNLive". 
  49. "WWCR Programming Schedule". 
  50. Blakeslee, Nate (March 2010). "Alex Jones Is About To Explode". Texas Monthly. Retrieved August 29, 2014. 
  51. "Will Bunch". CommonDreams. Retrieved August 29, 2014. 
  52. "Will Bunch". The Huffington Post. Retrieved August 29, 2014. 
  53. 53.0 53.1 ALEXANDER ZAITCHIK (March 2, 2011). "Meet Alex Jones". Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  54. Norman, Tony (2009-08-14). "A nutty way of discussing health care". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 
  55. Gosa, Travis L. (2011). "Counterknowledge, racial paranoia, and the cultic milieu: Decoding hip hop conspiracy theory". Poetics 39 (3): 187. doi:10.1016/j.poetic.2011.03.003. Retrieved 2011-07-11. 
  56. Black, Louis (2000-07-14). "Unknown Title". The Austin Chronicle. Retrieved 2008-05-20. "Jones is an articulate, sometimes hypnotic, often just annoying conspiracy theorist." 
  57. Duggan, Paul (2001-10-26). "Austin Hears the Music And Another New Reality; In Texas Cultural Center, People Prepare to Fight Terror". The Washington Post: p. A22. Retrieved 2008-05-20. "[His cable show] has made the exuberant, 27-year-old conspiracy theorist a minor celebrity in Austin." 
  58. "Conspiracy Files: 9/11 - Q&A: What really happened" (FAQ). BBC News. 2007-02-16. Retrieved 2008-05-19. "Leading conspiracy theorist and broadcaster Alex Jones of argues that ..." 
  59. Easley, Jonathan (July 21, 2016). "Roger Stone, Alex Jones plot primary challenge to Cruz". The Hill. Retrieved July 25, 2016. 
  60. Krieg, Gregory (19 July 2016). "Infowars' Alex Jones heats up Trump gathering in Cleveland". CNN. Retrieved 19 July 2016. 
  61. Haberman, Maggie (16 November 2016). "Alex Jones, Host and Conspiracy Theorist, Says Donald Trump Called to Thank Him". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 December 2016. 
  62. Darcy, Oliver (August 25, 2016). "Hillary Clinton declares war on conservative media". Business Insider. Retrieved February 7, 2017. 
  63. "Hillary's New Ad Calls Out Trump for Ties to Conspiracy Theorist Alex Jones". Fox News Insider. Retrieved February 7, 2017. 
  64. "How a pair of self-publicists wound up as apologists for Assad". The Economist. 14 April 2017. Retrieved 14 April 2017. 
  65. Farhi, Paul (March 24, 2017). "Conspiracy theorist Alex Jones backs off 'Pizzagate' claims". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 26, 2017. 
  66. Shelbourne, Mallory (25 March 2017). "Infowars' Alex Jones apologizes for pushing 'Pizzagate' conspiracy theory". The Hill. Retrieved 26 March 2017. 
  67. "Chobani Yogurt Sues Alex Jones Over Sexual Assault Report". New York Times. Retrieved April 25, 2017. 
  68. Montero, David (17 May 2017). "Alex Jones settles Chobani lawsuit and retracts comments about refugees in Twin Falls, Idaho". Los Angeles Times. 
  69. 69.0 69.1 69.2 "Piers Morgan vs. Alex Jones feud: helping or hurting gun control? (+video)". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  70. Mirkinson, Jack (January 9, 2013). "Piers Morgan: Alex Jones 'Terrifying', A Perfect 'Advertisement For Gun Control'". The Huffington Post. Retrieved January 9, 2013. 
  71. "Social media abuzz over Piers Morgan vs. Alex Jones". CNN. Retrieved January 10, 2013. 
  72. 72.0 72.1 Dixon, Hayley (June 9, 2013). "'Idiot' Bilderberg conspiracy theorist Alex Jones disrupts BBC politics show". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved June 9, 2013. 
  73. 73.0 73.1 Topping, Alexandra (June 9, 2013). "Andrew Neil calls Alex Jones an idiot in Sunday Politics clash". The Guardian (London). Retrieved June 9, 2013. 
  74. Taylor, Adam (June 9, 2013). "Conspiracy Theorist Alex Jones Goes Berserk During BBC Show". Business Insider. Retrieved June 9, 2013. 
  75. Siemaszko, Corky InfoWars’ Alex Jones Is a ‘Performance Artist,’ His Lawyer Says in Divorce Hearing NBC News (April 17, 2017). Retrieved on 4-17-2017.
  76. "Conservative radio host Alex Jones fighting to keep custody of children". 
  77. Borchers, Callum (April 20, 2017). "Analysis - Alex Jones is a narcissist, a witness testifies. And he's undermining his own attorneys". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 25, 2017. 
  78. O'Hara, Mary Emily (April 28, 2017). "Infowars founder Alex Jones speaks out about custody battle". NBC News. Retrieved April 29, 2017. 

External links[edit | edit source]