Abolition of slavery timeline

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Proclamation of the Abolition of Slavery in the French Colonies 1849, by Francois Auguste Biard. France abolished slavery in 1315 under Louis X of France, however some limited cases of slavery continued till the 17th century in some of France's Mediterranean harbours in Provence, as well as till the 18th century in some of France's overseas territories. Versailles Palace

The abolition of slavery occurred at different times in different countries. It frequently occurred sequentially in more than one stage - for example, as abolition of the trade in slaves in a specific country, and then as abolition of slavery throughout empires. Each step was usually the result of a separate law or action. This timeline shows abolition laws or actions listed chronologically.

This article also covers the abolition of serfdom.

Although slavery is now abolished de jure in all countries, some practices akin to it continue today in many places throughout the world.

Ancient times[edit | edit source]

  • 3rd century BC: Ashoka abolishes slave trade and encourages people to treat slaves well but does not abolish slavery itself in the Maurya Empire, covering the majority of India, which was under his rule.[1]
  • 221–206 BC: The Qin Dynasty's measures to eliminate the landowning aristocracy include the abolition of slavery and the establishment of a free peasantry who owed taxes and labor to the state. They also discouraged serfdom.[2] The dynasty was overthrown in 206 BC and many of its laws were overturned.
  • 9–12 A.D.: Wang Mang, first and only emperor of the Xin Dynasty, usurped the Chinese throne and instituted a series of sweeping reforms, including the abolition of slavery and radical land reform from 9–12 A.D.[3][4]

Medieval timeline[edit | edit source]

N.B.: Many of the listed reforms were reversed over succeeding centuries.
  • ~500: Slavery (or at least slave trading) ends for a time in Ireland,[5] but resumes by the ninth century.[6]
  • 873: Pope John VIII commanded under penalty of sin that all Christians who hold other Christians as slaves must set them free. [7]
  • 960: Doge of Venice Pietro IV Candiano reconvened the popular assembly and had it approve of a law prohibiting the slave trade in the Italian city-state the Republic of Venice.
  • 1080 William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy and French conqueror of England, prohibits the sale of any persons to heathens (non-Christians) as slaves.
  • 1102: Trade in slaves and serfdom is condemned by the church in London: Council of London (1102).
  • 1117: Slavery abolished in Iceland[8] (reintroduced as Vistarband from 1490 to 1894 in various forms).
  • 1214: The Statute of the Town of Korčula (today in Croatia) abolishes slavery.[9]
  • 1215: Magna Carta signed. Clause 30, commonly known as Habeas Corpus, would form the basis of a law against slavery in English common law.
  • ~1220: The Sachsenspiegel, the most influential German code of law from the Middle Ages, condemns slavery as a violation of man's likeness to God.[10]
  • 1256: The Liber Paradisus is promulgated. The Comune di Bologna abolishes slavery and serfdom and releases all the serfs in its territories.
  • 1274: Landslov (Land's Law) in Norway mentions only former slaves, which indicates that slavery was abolished in Norway
  • 1290: Edward I of England passes Quia Emptores, breaking any indenture to an estate, on the sale or transfer of the estate.
  • 1315: Louis X, King of France, publishes a decree abolishing slavery and proclaiming that "France signifies freedom" and that any slave setting foot on French ground should be freed.[11] However some limited cases of slavery continued till the 17th century in some of France's Mediterranean harbours in Provence, as well as till the 18th century in some of France's overseas territories.[12]
  • 1335: Sweden (including Finland at the time) makes slavery illegal. An abolition of slaves setting foot on Swedish ground does not occur until 1813[13] (in the 18th and 19th Centuries, slavery would be practiced in the Swedish-ruled Caribbean island of Saint Barthélemy).
  • 1347: Non-free people were emancipated in Poland under the Statutes of Casimir the Great issued in Wiślica.[14]
  • 1368: China's Hongwu Emperor establishes the Ming dynasty and would abolish all forms of slavery.[3] However, slavery continued in the Ming dynasty. Later Ming rulers, as a way of limiting slavery in the absence of a prohibition, passed a decree that limited the number of slaves that could be held per household and extracted a severe tax from slave owners.[15]
  • 1416: Republic of Ragusa (modern day Dubrovnik, Croatia) abolished slavery and slave trading
  • 1435: In Sicut Dudum, Pope Eugene IV banned enslavement of Christians in the Canary Islands on pain of excommunication.[16] However the non-Christian indigenous Guanches could be and were enslaved during the Spanish conquest.[12]

Modern timeline[edit | edit source]

1500–1700 (Early Modern)[edit | edit source]

  • 1537: Pope Paul III forbids slavery of the indigenous peoples of the Americas as well as of any other new population that would be discovered, indicating their right to freedom and property (Sublimis Deus).[17]
  • 1542: Spain enacted the New Laws, abolishing slavery of Native Americans in 1542, but replaced it with other systems of forced labor such as repartimiento. Slavery of Black Africans was not abolished.[12]
  • 1569: An English court case involving Cartwright, who had brought a slave from Russia, is said on the basis of a summary written more than a century later, to have ruled slavery illegal in England, but appears to have been more about the nature of legally acceptable punishment than slavery per se, and certainly did not soon become a recognized precedent for outlawing slavery as slaves continued to be bought and sold in Liverpool and London markets without legal hindrance into the 18th century. See the article "Slavery at common law".
  • 1588: The Third Statute of Lithuania abolishes slavery.[18]
  • 1595: A law is passed in Portugal banning the selling and buying of Chinese slaves.[19]
  • 1590: Toyotomi Hideyoshi bans slavery in Japan.[20] However, it continued as a punishment for criminals.
  • 1624, 19 February: The King of Portugal forbids the enslavement of Chinese of either sex.[21][22]
  • 1640, 19 July: John Punch, indentured servant, after his third attempt to run out on his contract, was sentenced to lifetime slavery in Virginia, the earliest instance of slavery in British North America (though his son, John Bunch, was free, and owned land and slaves, and another of his descendants, Barack Obama, became the 44th president of the United States of America).[23]
  • 1683: The Spanish Crown legally abolishes the slavery of indigenous Mapuche prisoners of war in Chile.[24]

1701–1799[edit | edit source]

1800–1849[edit | edit source]

  • 1800: The United States bans its citizens' investment and employment in the international slave trade in an additional Slave Trade Act.
  • 1802: The First Consul Napoleon re-introduces slavery in French colonies growing sugarcane.[29]
  • 1802: Ohio writes a state constitution that abolishes slavery.
  • 1803: Denmark–Norway: abolition of transatlantic slave trade takes effect 1 January 1803.
  • 1804: New Jersey begins a gradual abolition of slavery, freeing future children of slaves.[40] Those born prior to the Act remain enslaved for life. The process later becomes complete with the ratification of the 13th Amendment in 1865.
  • 1804: Haiti declares independence and abolishes slavery.[32]
  • 1805: Great Britain: A bill for abolition passes in House of Commons but is rejected in the House of Lords.
  • 1806: In a message to Congress, US President Thomas Jefferson calls for criminalizing the international slave trade, asking Congress to "withdraw the citizens of the United States from all further participation in those violations of human rights … which the morality, the reputation, and the best of our country have long been eager to proscribe."
  • 1807, 2 March: The US makes international slave trade a felony in Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves; this act takes effect on 1 January 1808.[48]
  • 1807, 25 March: Abolition of the Slave Trade Act abolishes slave trading in British Empire. Captains fined £120 per slave transported.
  • 1807, 22 July: The constitution of the Duchy of Warsaw abolishes serfdom.[49]
  • 1807: The British begin patrols of African coast to arrest slaving vessels. The West Africa Squadron (Royal Navy) is established to suppress slave trading; by 1865, nearly 150,000 people freed by anti-slavery operations.[50]
  • 1807, November 11: Abolition of serfdom in Prussia through the Stein-Hardenberg Reforms.[49]
  • 1807: In Michigan Territory, Judge Augustus Woodward denies the return of two slaves owned by a man in Windsor, Upper Canada (present day Ontario). Woodward declares that any man "coming into this Territory is by law of the land a freeman."[51]
  • 1808: The US makes it a crime to import or export slaves.[52]
  • 1810: In Mexico, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla declares slavery abolished. In the following years, during the Mexican War of Independence, gradually comprehensive steps will end slavery in the new country.
  • 1811: Slave trading made a felony in the British Empire, punishable by transportation for British subjects and foreigners.
  • 1811: Spain abolishes slavery at home and in all colonies except Cuba,[29] Puerto Rico, and Santo Domingo.
  • 1811: The First National Congress of Chile approves a proposal drafted by Manuel de Salas that declares the Freedom of wombs, which sets free the sons of slaves born on Chilean territory, no matter the conditions of the parents; it prohibited the slave trade and recognized as freedmen those who, passing in transit through Chilean territory, stayed there for six months.
  • 1813: Mexico abolishes slavery in the documents Sentimientos de la Nación, by insurgent leader José María Morelos y Pavón.
  • 1813: In Argentina, the Law of Wombs was passed on 2 February, by the Assembly of Year XIII. The law stated that those born after 31 January 1813 would be granted freedom when contracting matrimony, or on their 16th birthday for women and 20th for men, and upon their manumission would be given land and tools to work it. Slavery finally ends in 1853.[53]
  • 1814: Uruguay, before its independence, declares all those born of slaves in their territories are free from that day forward.
  • 1814: The Netherlands outlaws slave trade.
  • 1815: British pay Portugal £750,000 to cease their trade north of the Equator.[54]
  • 1815: At the Congress of Vienna, Europe's powers declare their opposition to slavery.[55]
  • 1816: Serfdom abolished in the Governorate of Estonia of the Russian Empire.
  • 1817: Serfdom abolished in the Governorate of Courland of the Russian Empire.
  • 1817: Spain paid £400,000 by British to cease trade to Cuba, Puerto Rico, and Santo Domingo.[54]
  • 1817: New York State sets a date of 4 July 1827 to free all its ex-slaves from indenture.[56]
  • 1818: Treaty between Britain and Spain to abolish slave trade.[57]
  • 1818: Treaty between Britain and Portugal to abolish slave trade.[57]
  • 1818: France abolishes slave trading.
  • 1818: Treaty between Britain and the Netherlands taking additional measures to enforce the 1814 ban on slave trading.[57]
  • 1819: Serfdom abolished in the Governorate of Livonia of the Russian Empire.
  • 1819: Upper Canada: Attorney-General John Robinson declares all black residents of Canada free.
  • 1819: The Kingdom of Hawaii abolished the ancient Hawaiian kapu system during the ʻAi Noa and with it the distinction between the kauwā slave class and the makaʻāinana (commoners).[58]
  • 1820: Mexico formally abolishes slavery with the Plan of Iguala, proposed by Agustín de Iturbide and ratified the following year by him and the Viceroy, Juan O'Donojú.
  • 1820: Compromise of 1820 in US prohibits slavery north of a line (36°30′).
  • 1820: In Polly v. Lasselle, Indiana supreme court orders almost all slaves in the state to be freed.
  • 1821: Gran Colombia (Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Panama) declares free the sons and daughters born to slave mothers, sets up program for compensated emancipation[59]
  • 1822: The Colony of Santo Domingo had just gained its independence from Spain as the Republic of Spanish Haiti, when it was occupied by Haiti ordered by president Jean Pierre Boyer, whom immediately abolished slavery in the eastern part of Hispaniola.
  • 1822: Liberia founded by American Colonization Society (USA) as a colony for emancipated slaves.
  • 1822: Greece revolts against the Ottoman Empire and abolishes slavery while gaining independence.
  • 1823: Chile abolishes slavery.[32]
  • 1823: Anti-Slavery Society founded in Britain.
  • 1824: Mexico's new constitution (1824 Constitution of Mexico) effectively frees existing slaves.
  • 1824: The Federal Republic of Central America abolishes slavery.
  • 1825: Uruguay declares independence from Brazil and prohibits the traffic of slaves from foreign countries.
Illustration from the book: The Black Man's Lament, Or, How to Make Sugar by Amelia Opie. (London, 1826)
  • 1827: Treaty between Britain and Sweden to abolish slave trade.[57]
  • 1827: New York State abolishes last vestiges of slavery. Children born between 1799 and 1827 are indentured until age 25 (females) or age 28 (males).[60]
  • 1828: The Illinois Supreme Court in Phoebe v. Jay rules that indentured servants in Illinois cannot be treated as chattel and bequeathing them by will is illegal. [61]
  • 1829: Last slaves are freed in Mexico. First black president of Mexico gets elected Vicente Guerrero[32]
  • 1830: Mexican president Anastasio Bustamante orders the abolition of slavery to be implemented also in Mexican Texas. To circumvent the law, Anglo colonists convert their slaves into "indentured servants for life".[62]
  • 1830: The first Constitution of Uruguay declares the abolition of slavery.
  • 1831: Bolivia abolishes slavery.[32]
  • 1831: Brazil adopts the Law of 7 November 1831, declaring the maritime slave trade abolished, prohibiting any form of importation of slaves, and granting freedom to slaves should they be illegally imported into Brazil. In spite of its adoption, the law was seldom enforced prior to 1850, when Brazil, under British pressure, adopted additional legislation to criminalize the importation of slaves.
  • 1834: The British Slavery Abolition Act comes into force, abolishing slavery throughout most of the British Empire. Legally frees 700,000 in West Indies, 20,000 in Mauritius, and 40,000 in South Africa. The exceptions, territories controlled by the East India Company and Ceylon, were liberated in 1843 when they became part of the British Empire.[63]
  • 1835: Serbia, an autonomous princedom vassal to the Ottoman Empire grants freedom to all foreign slaves that enter within its borders.[64] Since First Serbian Uprising slavery did not exist in Serbia.
  • 1835: Treaty between Britain and France to abolish slave trade.[57]
  • 1835: Treaty between Britain and Denmark to abolish slave trade.[57]
  • 1836: Portugal abolishes transatlantic slave trade.
  • 1836: Republic of Texas is established. Slavery is made legal again.
  • 1836, December: Viscount Sá da Bandeira, prime minister, prohibits the import and export of slaves from the Portuguese colonies south of the Equator.
  • 1838, 1 August: Enslaved men, women, and children in the British Empire finally became fully free after a period of forced apprenticeship following the passing of the Slavery Abolition Act in 1833.
  • 1839: British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society founded as a successor to the Anti-Slavery Society. (The British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society exists today as Anti-Slavery International.)
  • 1839: Indian indenture system made illegal in the territories controlled by the East India Company (reversed in 1842).
  • 1840: Treaty between Britain and Venezuela to abolish slave trade;[57] the first World Anti-Slavery Convention meets in London.
  • 1841: Quintuple Treaty is signed; Britain, France, Russia, Prussia, and Austria agree to suppress slave trade.[32]
  • 1842: Treaty between Britain and Portugal to extend the enforcement of the ban on slave trade to Portuguese ships sailing south of the Equator.
  • 1843: East India Company becomes increasingly controlled by Britain and abolishes slavery in the territories controlled by the company, through the Indian Slavery Act, 1843, Act V.
  • 1843: Treaty between Britain and Uruguay to suppress slave trade.[57]
  • 1843: Treaty between Britain and Mexico to suppress slave trade.[57]
  • 1843: Treaty between Britain and Chile to suppress slave trade.[57]
  • 1843: Treaty between Britain and Bolivia to abolish slave trade.[57]
  • 1845: 36 British Royal Navy ships are assigned to the Anti-Slavery Squadron, making it one of the largest fleets in the world.
An anti-slavery map with an unusual perspective centered on West Africa, which is in the light, and contrasting the U. S. and Europe in the dark. By Julius Rubens Ames, 1847
  • 1845: The Illinois Supreme Court in Jarrot v. Jarrot frees the last indentured ex-slaves in Illinois who were born after the Northwest Ordinance.[61]
  • 1846: Persuaded by Britain, the Bey of Tunisia outlawed the slave trade; the policy was reversed temporarily by his successor.[65]
  • 1847: The Ottoman Empire abolishes slave trade from Africa.[66]
  • 1847: The last slaves in the Swedish colony Saint Barthelemy are freed.[67]
  • 1847: Indentured ex-slaves freed in Pennsylvania, thus freeing the last remaining ex-slaves, those born before 1780 (fewer than 100 in 1840 Census).[68]
  • 1848: In Austria, the reforms spurred by the Kraków Uprising of 1846 and the Spring of Nations in 1848 resulted in the abolishment of serfdom in 1848.[69][70][71]
  • 1848: Slavery abolished in all French and Danish colonies.[32][67]
  • 1848: France founds Gabon for settlement of emancipated slaves.
  • 1848: Treaty between Britain and Muscat to suppress slave trade.[57]
  • 1849: Treaty between Britain and Persian Gulf states to suppress slave trade.[57]
  • 1849: Harriet Tubman escapes from Slavery in Dorchester County, Maryland.

1850–1899[edit | edit source]

Medical examination photo of Gordon showing his scourged back, widely distributed by Abolitionists to expose the brutality of slavery.
  • 1863: In the United States, Abraham Lincoln issues the presidential order the Emancipation Proclamation declaring slaves in Confederate-controlled areas to be freed. Most slaves in "border states" are freed by state action; separate law freed the slaves in Washington, D.C.
  • 1864: Following the serfdom emancipation reform of 1861 of Western Krai and the January Uprising of 1863–1864, a serfdom reform was introduced in Russian-controlled Congress Poland[79]
  • 1865: December: US abolishes slavery with the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution; about 40,000 remaining slaves are affected.[80]
  • 1866: Slavery abolished in Indian Territory (now Oklahoma).[81]
  • 1869: February 27: Portugal: King Louis I signs a decree of the government, chaired by the Marquis Sá da Bandeira, abolishing slavery in all Portuguese territories. Accordingly, all slaves in the Portuguese colonies in Africa were set free, resulting in the total termination of slavery across the Portuguese Empire.
  • 1871: Brazil: Rio Branco Law (Law of Free Birth) declares free the sons and daughters born to slave mothers after 28 September 1871.[82]
  • 1873: Slavery abolished in the Spanish colony of Puerto Rico: March 22.
  • 1873: Treaty between Britain and Zanzibar and Madagascar to suppress slave trade.[57]
  • 1874: Britain abolishes slavery in the Gold Coast (now Ghana), following its annexation in 1874.[83]
  • 1877: Egypt abolishes slavery in August.
  • 1879: After spending 5 centuries as an Ottoman province the newly restored principality of Bulgaria abolished slavery with its new constitution declaring that any slave arriving on its territory is freed at once.
  • 1882: Ottoman firman abolishes all forms of slavery, white or black.[84]
  • 1884: France abolished slavery in its then Protectorate of Cambodia.
  • 1885: Brazil passes Sexagenarians Law (Saraiva-Cotegipe Act), freeing all slaves over the age of 60, and creating other measures for the gradual abolition of slavery, such as a Manumissions Fund administered by the State.
  • 1886: Slavery abolished in Cuba.[32]
  • 1888: May 13: Brazil enacts the Golden Law, decreeing the total abolition of slavery with immediate effect, without indemnities to slave owners, but the financial aid to the freed men and women planned by the monarchy never took place due to a military coup that established a Republic in the country.[85]
  • 1890: Brussels Conference Act – a collection of anti-slavery measures to put an end to the slave trade on land and sea, especially in the Congo Basin, the Ottoman Empire, and the East African coast.
  • 1894: Korea officially abolishes slavery, but it survives in practice until 1930.[86]
  • 1896: France abolishes slavery in its then colony of Madagascar.
  • 1897: Zanzibar abolishes slavery[87] following its becoming a British protectorate.
  • 1899: France abolishes slavery in Ndzuwani.

1900–present[edit | edit source]

Although slavery is now abolished de jure in all countries,[102][103] de facto practices akin to it continue today in many places throughout the world.[104][105][106][107]

See also[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Clarence-Smith, William. "Religions and the abolition of slavery – a comparative approach" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-08-28. 
  2. The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History. Cengage Learning. 2009. p. 165. ISBN 9780618992386. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2011. p. 155. ISBN 9780313331435. 
  4. Encyclopedia of Slave Resistance and Rebellion. Google Books. https://books.google.com/books?id=g_kuS42BxIYC&pg=PA420. Retrieved 2013-08-28. 
  5. Cahill, Thomas (1995). How the Irish Saved Civilization. New York: Doubleday. p. 110,148. ISBN 0-385-41849-3. https://books.google.com/books?id=KJfZw8djFIoC. 
  6. Rodriguez, Junius P. (1997). The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 368. ISBN 0-87436-885-5. https://books.google.com/books?id=ATq5_6h2AT0C&pg=PA368. 
  7. Denzinger, Heinrich P. (2012). Compendium of Creeds, Definitions, and Declarations on Matters of Faith and Morals. Santa Francisco, California: Ignatius Press. p. 229. ISBN 978-0-89870-746-5. 
  8. "Iceland – So Near yet So Remote". Iceland had a national assembly in the year 930 and abolished slavery in 1117. 
  9. "Statute of Korcula from 1214 – Large Print". Korculainfo.com. Retrieved 2013-08-28. 
  10. Hans A. Frambach in Jürgen Georg Backhaus: "The Liberation of the Serfs". Google Books. 2012-05-31. p. 33. https://books.google.com/books?id=ewJDxG4cCeMC&pg=PA33&dq=sachsenspiegel+slavery+serfs&hl=de&sa=X&ei=6Q8JUvLFBMeWtAbCkoGQCQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=sachsenspiegel%20slavery%20serfs&f=false. Retrieved 2013-08-28. 
  11. Miller, Christopher L.. The French Atlantic triangle: literature and culture of the slave trade. Google Books. p. 20. https://books.google.com/books?id=480BBURkreYC&pg=PA122. Retrieved 2013-08-28. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 David Eltis; Keith Bradley; Paul Cartledge (25 July 2011). The Cambridge World History of Slavery: Volume 3, AD 1420 – AD 1804. Cambridge University Press. pp. 142–143–326–327–331–332–333–602. ISBN 978-0-521-84068-2. 
  13. John Roach; Jürgen Thomaneck (1985). Police and public order in Europe. Taylor & Francis. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-7099-2242-1. https://books.google.com/?id=GJsOAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA256. 
  14. Samuel Augustus Mitchell (1859). A general view of the world: comprising a physical, political, and statistical account of its grand divisions ... with their empires, kingdoms, republics, principalities, &c.: exhibiting the history of geographical science and the progress of discovery to the present time ... Illustrated by upwards of nine hundred engravings .... H. Cowperthwait & Co.. p. 335. https://books.google.com/books?id=D81JAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA335. Retrieved 1 April 2012. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2011. p. 156. ISBN 9780313331435. 
  16. http://www.papalencyclicals.net/Eugene04/eugene04sicut.htm
  17. Denzinger, Heinrich P. (2012). Compendium of Creeds, Definitions, and Declarations on Matters of Faith and Morals. Santa Francisco, California: Ignatius Press. p. 367-8. ISBN 978-0-89870-746-5. 
  18. Dembkowski, Harry E. (1982). The union of Lublin, Polish federalism in the golden age. East European Monographs, 1982. p. 271. ISBN 978-0-88033-009-1. https://books.google.com/?id=svAaAAAAMAAJ&q=poland+lithuania+1588+slavery&dq=poland+lithuania+1588+slavery. 
  19. Maria Suzette Fernandes Dias (2007). Legacies of slavery: comparative perspectives. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 1-84718-111-2. https://books.google.com/?id=XHm4AAAAIAAJ&q=The+Japanese+and+the+Chinese+showed+strong+reluctance+to+the+idea+of+their+people+being+taken+as+slaves+by+the+Portuguese.&dq=The+Japanese+and+the+Chinese+showed+strong+reluctance+to+the+idea+of+their+people+being+taken+as+slaves+by+the+Portuguese.. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  20. Lewis, James Bryant. (2003). Frontier Contact Between Choson Korea and Tokugawa Japan, pp. 31–32.
  21. Gary João de Pina-Cabral (2002). Between China and Europe: person, culture and emotion in Macao. Berg Publishers. p. 114. ISBN 0-8264-5749-5. https://books.google.com/?id=SDvOJRO7qu8C&pg=PA115&dq=chinese+declared+that+they+cannot+and+should+not+be+made+captive#v=onepage&q=1624%20royal%20decree&f=false. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  22. Gary João de Pina-Cabral (2002). Between China and Europe: person, culture and emotion in Macao. Berg Publishers. p. 115. ISBN 0-8264-5749-5. https://books.google.com/?id=SDvOJRO7qu8C&pg=PA115&dq=chinese+declared+that+they+cannot+and+should+not+be+made+captive#v=onepage&q=chinese%20declared%20that%20they%20cannot%20and%20should%20not%20be%20made%20captive&f=false. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  23. Hennessey, Kathleen. "Obama related to legendary Virginia slave, genealogists say", Los Angeles Times. July 30, 2012.
  24. Valenzuela Márquez, Jaime (2009). "Esclavos mapuches. Para una historia del secuestro y deportación de indígenas en la colonia" (in Spanish). Historias de racismo y discriminación en Chile. pp. 234–236. 
  25. Catterall, Helen Tunnicliff. Judicial Cases Concerning American Slavery and the Negro, Vol. I: Cases from the Courts of England, Virginia, West Virginia, and Kentucky. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1926. accessed 2 October 2013.
  26. V.C.D. Mtubani, African Slaves and English Law, PULA Botswana Journal of African Studies Vol 3 No 2 Nov 1983 retrieved 24 February 2011
  27. 27.0 27.1 "Historical survey > Ways of ending slavery". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2013-08-28. 
  28. Wilson, Thomas D., The Oglethorpe Plan: Enlightenment Design in Savannah and Beyond, Charlottesville, VA: University of Virginia Press, 2012. p. 130.
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 Hobhouse, Henry. Seeds of Change: Six Plants That Transformed Mankind, 2005. Page 111.
  30. Heward, Edmund (1979). Lord Mansfield: A Biography of William Murray 1st Earl of Mansfield 1705–1793 Lord Chief Justice for 32 years. p. 141. Chichester: Barry Rose (publishers) Ltd. ISBN 0-85992-163-8
  31. 31.0 31.1 Finkelman, Paul (2007). "The Abolition of The Slave Trade". New York Public Library. Retrieved 25 June 2014. 
  32. 32.00 32.01 32.02 32.03 32.04 32.05 32.06 32.07 32.08 32.09 32.10 32.11 32.12 Robert William Fogel and Stanley L. Engerman. Time on the Cross: The Economics of American Negro Slavery, 1995. Pages 33–34.
  33. "Constitution of Vermont (1777)". Chapter I, Article I: State of Vermont. 1777. Retrieved 7 June 2014. 
  34. Lee Ann, Cox. "UVM historian examines Vermont’s mixed history of slavery and abolition". University of Vermont. Retrieved 12 February 2014. 
  35. "Slavery, freedom or perpetual servitude? – the Joseph Knight case". The National Archives of Scotland. Retrieved 5 July 2014. 
  36. A Leon Higginbotham, Jr., In the Matter of Color: Race & the American Legal Process, Oxford University Press, 1978. p. 310.
  37. "Historical survey > Slave societies". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2013-08-28. 
  38. A. Leon Higginbotham, In the matter of color: race and the American legal process (1980) p. 91
  39. Viorel Achim, The Roma in Romanian History, Central European University Press, Budapest, 2004. ISBN 963-9241-84-9, p. 128
  40. 40.0 40.1 Higginbotham, p. 310.
  41. Britton (ed.) 1978, p. 53
  42. A. B. C. Sibthorpe, The history of Sierra Leone (1970) p. 8
  43. Rodriguez, Junius P.. The Historical encyclopedia of world slavery, Volume 1. Google Books. https://books.google.com/books?id=ATq5_6h2AT0C&pg=PA8&dq=abolish+slavery+iceland&hl=en&ei=O9RSTI7CLueXOPPMzJ4O&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=abolish%20slavery%20iceland&f=false. Retrieved 2013-08-28. 
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Further reading[edit | edit source]

  • Bales, Kevin. "Disposable People" (University of California Press, 2012)
  • Campbell, Gwyn. The Structure of Slavery in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia (Frank Cass, 2004)
  • Drescher, Seymour. Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery (Cambridge University Press, 2009)
  • Finkelman, Paul, and Joseph Miller, eds. Macmillan Encyclopedia of World Slavery (2 vol 1998)
  • Gordon, M. Slavery in the Arab World (1989)
  • Hinks, Peter, and John McKivigan, eds. Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition (2 vol. 2007) 795pp; ISBN 978-0-313-33142-8
  • Lovejoy, Paul. Transformations in Slavery: A History of Slavery in Africa (Cambridge UP, 1983)
  • Morgan, Kenneth. Slavery and the British Empire: From Africa to America (2008)
  • Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. The Historical Encyclopedia of World Slavery (1997)
  • Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. Encyclopedia of Emancipation and Abolition in the Transatlantic World (2007)

External links[edit | edit source]