2016 Republican National Convention
|2016 presidential election|
Trump and Pence
|Date(s)||July 18–21, 2016|
|City||Cleveland, Ohio, United States|
|Venue||Quicken Loans Arena|
|Notable speakers||See below|
|Presidential nominee||Donald Trump of New York|
|Vice Presidential nominee||Mike Pence of Indiana|
|Votes needed for nomination||1,237 (simple majority)|
|Results (President)||Trump (NY): 1,725 (69.78%)|
Cruz (TX): 484 (19.58%)
Kasich (OH): 125 (5.06%)
Rubio (FL): 123 (4.98%)
Carson (FL): 7 (0.28%)
Bush (FL): 3 (0.12%)
Paul (KY): 2 (0.08%)
Abstention 3 (0.12%)
|Results (Vice President)||Pence (IN): 100% (Acclamation)|
2016 U.S. presidential election
President of the United States
Page Template:Location map/styles.css has no content.
The 2016 Republican National Convention, in which delegates of the United States Republican Party chose the party's nominees for President of the United States and Vice President of the United States in the 2016 U.S. presidential election, was held July 18–21, 2016, at Quicken Loans Arena in Cleveland, Ohio. The event marked the third time Cleveland has hosted the Republican National Convention and the first since 1936. In addition to determining the party's national ticket, the convention ratified the party platform.
There were 2,472 delegates to the Republican National Convention, with a simple majority of 1,237 required to win the presidential nomination. Most of those delegates were bound for the first ballot of the convention based on the results of the 2016 Republican presidential primaries. The convention formally nominated Donald Trump for President and Indiana Governor Mike Pence for Vice President. Trump and Pence went on to win the general election with a majority of the electoral votes.
Background[edit | edit source]
In 2016, both the Democratic and Republican conventions were held before the Summer Olympics instead of after, as was the case in 2008 and 2012. One reason the Republican Party scheduled their convention in July was to help avoid a longer, drawn-out primary battle similar to what happened in 2012, which left the party fractured heading into the general election and eventually led to Mitt Romney losing the election to Barack Obama. The Democratic Party then followed suit, scheduling their convention in Philadelphia the week after the Republicans' convention, to provide a quicker response. On May 3, Republican National Committee chairman Reince Priebus declared Donald Trump the presumptive nominee after Texas senator Ted Cruz dropped out of the race. The next day, Ohio Governor John Kasich suspended his campaign, effectively making Trump the presumptive Republican presidential nominee. Trump was the first presidential nominee of a major party since Wendell Willkie, the Republican candidate in 1940, who has held neither political office nor a high military rank prior to his nomination. He was also the first presidential nominee of a major party without political experience since General Dwight D. Eisenhower first captured the Republican presidential nomination in 1952. This was the first Republican National Convention to be held entirely in July since 1980. Twitter and CBS News live streamed the convention via Twitter.
Selection[edit | edit source]
On April 2, 2014, the Republican National Committee announced that Cincinnati, Cleveland, Dallas, Denver, Kansas City and Las Vegas were the finalists for hosting the convention. In late June 2014, Cleveland and Dallas were announced as the final two contenders to be the host city. Cleveland was selected on July 8, 2014.
Host Committee[edit | edit source]
The 2016 Cleveland Host Committee, an Ohio nonprofit corporation with no political affiliation, is the official and federally designated Presidential Convention Host Committee for the convention. It is responsible for "organizing, hosting and funding" the convention; it also aims "to promote Northeast Ohio and ensure Cleveland is best represented, and to lessen the burden of local governments in hosting the 2016 Republican National Convention". The Host Committee is composed of prominent Ohio business executives, civic leaders, and other community leaders. David Gilbert, CEO of Destination Cleveland and the Greater Cleveland Sports Commission, is the President and CEO of the host committee. Organizers have found it hard to raise the money needed to put on the convention, which is normally supported by corporate donations. Corporations that donated hundreds of thousands of dollars to the 2012 convention but nothing in 2016 include JPMorgan Chase, General Electric, Ford Motor Company, Motorola Solutions and Amgen. Reluctance to be associated with Trump, or concern that the convention might be disrupted by floor fights or violence, were sometimes cited as factors in the decision to withhold funds. In July as the convention got under way, the Cleveland Host Committee said it had raised $58 million of its $64 million goal. They asked billionaire Sheldon Adelson, who often contributes to Republicans, to make up the $6 million shortfall.
Security arrangements and planning[edit | edit source]
The convention is designated as a National Special Security Event, meaning that ultimate authority over law enforcement goes to the Secret Service and Department of Homeland Security. A highly publicized online petition by gun activists to allow the open carry of guns inside Quicken Loans Arena garnered 45,000 signatures; however, the Secret Service, which is in charge of convention security, announced that it would not allow guns in the arena (or the small "secure zone" immediately outside it) during the event, releasing a statement in late March 2016 saying: "Individuals determined to be carrying firearms will not be allowed past a predetermined outer perimeter checkpoint, regardless of whether they possess a ticket to the event." The Secret Service has the authority to restrict guns, firearms or other weapons from entering any site where it is protecting an individual.
The Cleveland Police Department received $50 million in federal grants to support local police operations during the event. With this grant money, the City of Cleveland sought to purchase over 2,000 riot control personnel gear sets prior to the convention for $20 million, and the remaining $30 million is expected to go to personnel expenses. Items such as water guns, swords, tennis balls and coolers have been banned by the City of Cleveland from the 1.7-square-mile "event zone" outside the convention hall by the City of Cleveland, but because of a statewide open-carry law permitting the open carrying of guns, firearms are permitted. The Cleveland chapter of the NAACP raised concerns in March 2016 in a letter to city and county leaders about security at the Convention, writing that police were unprepared for a "possible mix of protesters and demonstrators brandishing guns." The Cleveland Police Union also raised concerns similar to those raised by the local NAACP in March, writing that equipment and training for police was behind schedule. On July 16—the eve of the convention—the Cleveland Police Union asked Governor John Kasich to temporarily suspend Ohio's state open-carry gun law so as to block the carrying of guns within the event zone, but Kasich rejected the request, writing: "Ohio governors do not have the power to arbitrarily suspend federal and state constitutional rights or state laws as suggested."
Before the convention there were a number of online phishing expeditions that may have been hackers looking for weak spots in the convention's network. The computer network of the Democratic National Committee had already been penetrated by hackers linked with the Russian government, compromising, among other things, the database of opposition research on Trump. On July 17, 2016, The New York Times reported that "Cleveland has assigned about 500 police officers specifically to handle the convention and it has brought in thousands more officers to help, from departments as distant as California and Texas."
Protest planning[edit | edit source]
The Los Angeles Times wrote at the end of March 2016 that fears of a turbulent and volatile convention atmosphere were heightened because of a variety of factors: "a city scarred by controversial police shootings and simmering with racial tension; a candidate [Trump] who has threatened that his supporters will riot if he comes with the most delegates but leaves without the nomination; and a police force with a reputation for brutality." Concerns specifically focused on the ability of the Cleveland Police Department to handle protests in the wake of the Tamir Rice and Michael Brelo cases, and a 2014 Department of Justice investigation that criticized the police department for having a pattern or practice of using "unreasonable and unnecessary force." Left-wing activists have been preparing for the convention since it was announced in 2014. In May 2016, the American Civil Liberties Union threatened to file a lawsuit on behalf of two activist groups, Citizens for Trump and a progressive group called Organize Ohio, asserting that protesters were being inhibited in their attempts to organize effectively by the city's delay in granting permits. As of May 19, six groups had filed for permits, but none had been granted. Cleveland stalled on approving and making public the demonstration applications it received, while Philadelphia (hosting the 2016 Democratic National Convention) had already granted an application. The ACLU sued the city in federal district court on June 14, 2016. As of May 20, 2016, groups that have filed for protest permits have included the AIDS Healthcare Foundation; Global Zero; Organize Ohio, a group of progressive activists; the Citizens for Trump/Our Votes Matter March; Coalition to March on the RNC and Dump Trump; Stand Together Against Trump, an anti-Donald Trump group; People's Fightback Center/March Against Racism; and Created Equal, an anti-abortion group. A pro-Trump group, Trump March RNC, withdrew its application after Trump became the presumptive nominee.
Attendance and officials skipping convention[edit | edit source]
As Trump rose to become the presumptive presidential nominee of the Republican Party, a number of prominent Republicans announced they would not attend the convention. Of the living former Republican nominees for president, only 1996 nominee Bob Dole announced that he would attend the convention; Romney, John McCain, George W. Bush and George H. W. Bush all announced that they would skip the convention. A number of Republican Governors, U.S. Representatives and U.S. Senators, particularly those facing difficult reelection campaigns, also indicated that they would not attend, seeking to distance themselves from Trump and spend more time with voters in their home states. Most notably, Governor Kasich chose to avoid the convention, while Ohio Senator Rob Portman attended the convention but avoided taking a major role in its proceedings. On July 8, 2016, Nebraska Senator Ben Sasse announced that he would not attend the convention. Many Republican senators did not attend the convention at all: Senator Steve Daines of Montana, who would be "fly-fishing with his wife"; Senator Jeff Flake of Arizona, who said he had "to mow his lawn"; and Senator Lisa Murkowski of Alaska, who would be traveling in Alaska by bush plane.
A number of prominent businesses and trade groups, including Coca-Cola, Microsoft and Hewlett-Packard, scaled back participation in the convention, sharply reducing their contributions for convention events and sponsorship. In June, six major companies that sponsored the 2012 Republican convention—Wells Fargo, UPS, Motorola, JPMorgan Chase, Ford and Walgreens Boots—announced they would not sponsor the 2016 Republican convention. Apple Inc. followed suit, announcing that it, too, would be withdrawing funding from the convention over Trump's position on certain election issues.
Seating assignments[edit | edit source]
Seating arrangements for state and territorial delegations were announced on July 16, two days before the convention began. The Ohio and Texas delegations were assigned to the back of the convention hall, a move viewed as punishment for the delegations, as they did not back Trump in their respective primaries (Ohio and Texas voted for Kasich and Cruz, respectively).
Convention committees and meetings before the Convention[edit | edit source]
There are four Convention committees, which met ahead of the Convention for specific purposes under the rules of the Republican Party. Each committee is composed of one man and one woman from each state, the five U.S. territories, and the District of Columbia, totaling 112 members. Those committee members are selected by the 56 delegations, which determine on their own how to choose their representatives on each committee. Each of the committees met the week before the convention at the Huntington Convention Center in Cleveland. The committees are as follows:
Committee on Rules and Order of Business (or Rules Committee)[edit | edit source]
The Rules Committee, which sets the rules of the convention and the standing rules that govern the party until the next convention, met on July 14. The rules it passes must be adopted by the full convention to take effect. This committee is regarded as the most powerful. It consists of 112 members, including one male delegate and one female delegate from each state, territory and Washington, D.C. Members of this committee are elected at state conventions. The Rules Committee was chaired by Enid Mickelsen of Utah and Ron Kaufman of Massachusetts.
In June 2016, activists Eric O'Keefe and Dane Waters formed a group called Delegates Unbound, which CNN described as "an effort to convince delegates that they have the authority and the ability to vote for whomever they want." Republican delegate Kendal Unruh led an effort among other Republican delegates to change the convention rules "to include a 'conscience clause' that would allow delegates bound to Trump to vote against him, even on the first ballot at the July convention." Following a "marathon 15-hour meeting" on July 14, 2016, the Rules Committee voted down, by a vote of 84–21, a move to send a "minority report" to the floor allowing the unbinding of delegates, thereby guaranteeing Trump's nomination. The committee then made the opposite move, voting 87–12 to include rules language specifically stating that delegates were required to vote based on their states' primary and caucus results. By a unanimous vote, the Rules Committee also voted to change Rule 40(b), a controversial rule that had provided that "a candidate had to win a majority of the vote in eight states to have his or her name placed into nomination at the convention." The committee voted to return to the pre-2012 rule, which required a candidate to receive only a plurality of the vote in at least five states to have his or her name placed in nomination.
Platform Committee[edit | edit source]
The Platform Committee met for two days of open hearings on July 11 and 12 to draft a party platform, which had to be ratified by the full convention. (See Platform below). The Platform Committee was chaired by Senator John Barrasso of Wyoming and co-chaired by Congresswoman Virginia Foxx of North Carolina and Governor Mary Fallin of Oklahoma.
Credentials Committee[edit | edit source]
The Credentials Committee handles disputes on the eligibility of convention delegates. The Committee on Contests reviews contested delegates; if the Contests Committee recommends that a delegate be de-certified, the Credentials Committee considers the recommendation. The Rule Committee was chaired by Mike Duncan, former chairman of the Republican National Committee, and co-chaired by Arkansas Republican Party chairman Doyle Webb.
Committee on Arrangements[edit | edit source]
Platform[edit | edit source]
Platform Committee debate and provisions[edit | edit source]
The platform committee adopted its platform on July 12. The platform was described as "staunchly conservative" and reflective of the party's move towards the right. The most contentious discussions at the platform committee dealt with social issues, particularly those dealing with LGBT people. The platform adopted by the platform committee adopted a "strict, traditionalist view" on social issues, expressing deep criticism "of how the modern American family has evolved." Many platform planks expressing "disapproval of homosexuality, same-sex marriage or transgender rights"—championed by Tony Perkins, the president of the Family Research Council—passed. The platform calls for overturning Obergefell v. Hodges, the Supreme Court decision on same-sex marriage, by a constitutional amendment. The platform also calls for the appointment of judges "who respect traditional family values." The platform promotes state bathroom bills to restrict the public restrooms that transgender persons can use; and stated that "natural marriage" is between a man and a woman and is less likely to result in children who become drug addicts. The platform also expressed support for allowing parents to seek "the proper medical treatment and therapy for their minor children," which was widely seen as alluding to the right of parents to have their gay minors undergo conversion therapy. The platform calls internet pornography "a public health crisis that is destroying the life of millions" and encourages states to fight it. The platform also calls for the teaching of the Bible in public schools.
Rachel Hoff, a District of Columbia delegate who is the first openly gay member of a Republican platform committee, offered several amendments to soften or offer language inclusive of the LGBT community, but each proposal failed. Hoff's proposal for language "stating that marriage is a fundamentally important institution and that 'there are diverse and sincerely held views on marriage' within the party" failed in an unofficial vote of 30 to 82. An amendment was also offered to recognize that gay people are targeted by ISIL; the delegates who introduced this amendment sought to signal inclusion of the gay community. The amendment was opposed by conservative delegates (such as Jim Bopp of Indiana, who termed such an amendment "identity politics") and was voted down.
The party's platform language "was strengthened to condemn all types of abortion" without exceptions. The platform committee adopted a provision, proposed by Kansas Secretary of State Kris Kobach, expressing opposition to any restriction on magazine capacity in firearms. The platform called for "certain federally controlled public lands" to be immediately transferred to state ownership, where it could be privatized. The platform did not specify whether the lands would include national parks, national forests, or wilderness areas.
On foreign policy, the members of the platform committee were split between "libertarian-minded isolationists" and "national security hawks." The latter camp won on almost every point, voting down measures that would have condemned ongoing U.S. involvement in Middle Eastern wars and approving language promoting increased military spending. One plank reflected a more isolationist approach, eliminating references to giving weapons to Ukraine in its fight with Russia and rebel forces, after Trump staffers reportedly intervened with delegates. The platform adopted by the platform committee opposes a two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. While the 2012 Republican platform called for passage of the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), the 2016 platform adopted by the convention committee omits mention of the agreement, reflecting the influence of presumptive nominee Donald Trump, who opposes the trade pact. The platform also expressly calls for a wall to be built on the U.S.-Mexico border, as Trump has called for (a strengthening of initially proposed language calling for a "physical barrier").
Adoption of platform by convention[edit | edit source]
Giovanni Cicione of Rhode Island, a platform committee member, led "a dissident group of Republican delegates" who opposed the anti-LGBT provisions of the sixty-page, committee-adopted platform and sought to replace it with a two-page "statement of principles" that avoided controversial issues such as same-sex marriage. Cicione tried to force a debate and vote on the platform from the floor of the convention. Cicione's effort was unsuccessful; on the first day of the convention, the delegates approved the platform by voice vote, with only a few scattered "nays" audible.
The Convention[edit | edit source]
Floor fight over rules[edit | edit source]
After the Indiana primary on May 3, 2016, Donald Trump became the presumptive nominee as the lone remaining Republican candidate running for the Republican nomination. Under rules established by previous Republican conventions, most delegates were bound on the first ballot according to the results of the primaries. A simple majority of 1,237 delegates was needed to win the nomination. Entering the convention, Trump was seen as the presumptive nominee and had the support of a comfortable majority of the delegates.
on first ballot
On the afternoon of July 18, 2016, a group of delegates sought to force a roll-call vote on the proposed convention rules package adopted by the Rules Committee. Some who demanded a roll call vote sought to change the party rules package to "unbind" delegates so that on the first ballot, delegates could "vote their conscience" and conceivably block Trump from being nominated on the first ballot; such a move would also "allow Trump opponents a platform to argue against" Trump. Others demanding a roll call vote were seeking to reform party rules to decentralize power from the RNC and make changes for the 2020 primary process.
That morning, a petition for a roll call vote was submitted with the signatures of a majority of delegates from ten states. That afternoon, the Presiding Officer, Rep. Steve Womack of Arkansas, did not recognize delegates clamoring for recognition over the rules package for the convention. Womack first declared the previous question was ordered by unanimous consent despite loud cries of objection. The rules were then adopted by voice vote, prompting loud cries of protest from delegates demanding recognition for a roll-call vote. Finally, Womack declared that a Reconsideration of a motion was laid upon the table by unanimous consent, again to cries of objection. With loud cries throughout the convention hall, Womack abandoned the podium for several minutes, allowing RNC and Trump whips to work the floor and collect withdrawal signatures from the petition for a roll call vote. Womack then reappeared and, again using unanimous consent, stated he would put the question of adopting the rules to the convention for a voice vote a second time. A second voice vote was taken. Womack then recognized the leader of the Utah delegation, who requested a roll call vote. Womack denied the motion, ruling that there were insufficient signatures to compel such a vote, and announcing that while there had initially appeared to be nine state delegations that agreed to the roll-call vote, enough signatures had since been withdrawn to cause three states to fall below the threshold, thus missing the required seven states needed. It was reported that Trump campaign aides and RNC staff worked on the floor to persuade delegates to withdraw their support and "challenged the validity of various signatures." Delegates, including Senator Mike Lee of Utah, sought recognition and repeatedly called for a point of order, but were ignored by Womack, and reportedly had their microphones turned off. Lee said he had "never seen anything like this" after Womack declined to recognize their objections and walked off the stage, and Ken Cuccinelli, the Virginia delegation chairman, said the RNC "cheated" and "violate[d] their own rules." The process prompted the Colorado delegation to walk out in protest.
Nominations and balloting[edit | edit source]
Jeff Sessions, U.S. Senator from Alabama, formally nominated Trump for president, with Chris Collins, U.S. Representative from New York, and Henry McMaster, Lieutenant Governor of South Carolina, seconding the nomination. Trump won the presidential nomination on July 19, 2016 on the first ballot with 69.8% of the delegates, the lowest percentage of delegates won by the Republican nominee since the 1976 Republican National Convention. The vice presidential nomination was held immediately after the presidential nomination. Eric Holcomb, the Lieutenant Governor of Indiana, nominated Indiana Governor Mike Pence for vice president. Trump had announced his choice of Pence as his preferred running mate the weekend before the start of the convention. Pence won the vice presidential nomination by acclamation.
All of the delegates from Iowa, Alaska, Utah and the District of Columbia were recorded and counted for Trump, despite the fact that Trump lost all three contests, and most of the members of those delegations had voted for other candidates. The Alaska delegation challenged the award of votes to Trump by the RNC Secretary and the Utah delegation booed when its delegates were awarded to Trump, but was reminded by the RNC Chairman that the rules for these two states required the votes to be awarded to whichever candidate was still in the race for the RNC Nomination for President, and that Cruz, Rubio, and the other candidates that had withdrawn from the race had forfeited these delegates based on the RNC nomination rules.
Convention speakers[edit | edit source]
Planning and invitations[edit | edit source]
In April 2016, Trump vowed to bring "some showbiz" to the convention, criticizing the party's 2012 convention in Tampa, Florida, as "the single most boring convention I’ve ever seen." The convention's lineup of speakers lacked "many of the party's rising stars" and rather featured some of Trump's "eclectic collection of friends, celebrities and relatives." Politico reported that Trump was directly involved in details of convention plans, seeking "to maximize the drama and spectacle" of the four-night event. A large number of prominent Republican elected officials said they were not interested in attending the convention or even speaking at it, seeking to distance themselves from Trump. The Trump campaign considered the idea of having Trump speak all four nights at the convention – a break from the traditional practice of the presidential nominee taking the stage only on the final night of the convention. Ultimately, Trump decided not to speak every night. Trump also initially stated that he would announce his vice-presidential running mate at the convention itself, rather than before the convention, with a campaign staffer saying that "announcing the vice-presidential nominee before the convention is like announcing the winner of Celebrity Apprentice before the final episode is on the air." Trump's campaign eventually announced plans to announce a running mate the week before the convention and named Mike Pence as his running mate on July 15, 2016.
A number of figures that Trump said he would invite to speak, including boxing promoter Don King, former Alaska governor Sarah Palin and New England Patriots quarterback Tom Brady, were not included in the lineup. Trump wanted King to speak at the convention and raised the issue several times, reportedly until Republican National Committee chairman Reince Priebus "firmly explained" to Trump that King should not be invited due to his past manslaughter conviction. Former Chicago Bears coach Mike Ditka, a Trump supporter, declined an invitation to speak. An early roster of speakers obtained by the media listed former NFL quarterback Tim Tebow as a speaker, but Tebow later dismissed this as a rumor and did not appear at the convention. Haskel Lookstein, a prominent Orthodox rabbi, was initially set to appear at the convention to deliver the opening prayer (having accepted an invitation to do so from Ivanka Trump, a congregant), but after hundreds of American Modern Orthodox Jews urged him to withdraw from the convention, Lookstein pulled out.
Trump sought to bar those who have not endorsed him from addressing the convention, making comments aimed at the former primary rivals who have declined to endorse him – Bush, Carly Fiorina, Lindsey Graham and George Pataki. However, both Senator Marco Rubio of Florida and Senator Ted Cruz of Texas, who ran against Trump for the Republican nomination and lost, were eventually placed on the speakers' schedule, although "neither ... paid the expected price of that spotlight by offering an explicit endorsement." Cruz met with Trump two weeks before the convention and accepted an invitation to speak. Rubio was initially not offered a speaking slot and was expected to skip the convention, but on July 17, 2016, it was confirmed that Rubio would address the convention via recorded video. Neither Rubio nor Cruz were listed as "headliner" speakers.
Governor Kasich did not enter the convention hall or speak at the convention, despite overtures from Trump allies Priebus and Newt Gingrich – who, along with Chris Christie, lost the running mate job to Pence – and top Trump campaign advisor Paul Manafort. Kasich said: "If I'm going to show up at the convention and I'm not going to be saying all these great things about the host, then I think it's inappropriate. I don't think that's the right thing to do." Kasich attended events outside the convention hall in support of down-ballot Republican candidates. As the convention began, the Trump campaign lashed out at Kasich for his failure to endorse, prompting an exchange that The New York Times called "remarkably bitter" and "the latest extraordinary turn in a campaign that has veered sharply away from political precedent." Manafort called Kasich "petulant" and accused him of "embarrassing his party," prompting Kasich chief political aide John Weaver to mock Trump and criticize Manafort for his work on behalf of foreign "thugs and autocrats" abroad.
Schedule[edit | edit source]
On July 17, 2016, the convention planners released the convention's official schedule of events and speakers, along with themes. (An early, preliminary roster of speakers, "confirmed by two people with direct knowledge of the convention planning," had been obtained and published by the New York Times several days earlier.) The schedule of speakers is as follows:
- Monday, July 18–"Make America Safe Again"
- Invocation: Mark Burns of South Carolina, televangelist, prosperity gospel preacher. Burns' controversial prayer was described as "perhaps the most politically charged benediction ever heard at a national convention"; Burns stated that "our enemy is not other Republicans, but is Hillary Clinton and the Democratic Party."
- Willie Robertson, star of the reality television show Duck Dynasty
- Rick Perry, former Governor of Texas, candidate for the 2016 Republican presidential nomination
- Marcus Luttrell, former Navy SEAL
- Scott Baio, actor and television producer
- Patricia Smith, mother of Benghazi victim Sean Smith
- Mark Geist, Benghazi veteran
- John Tiegen, Benghazi veteran
- Kent Terry and Kelly Terry-Willis, brother and sister of a killed Border Patrol agent
- Antonio Sabàto Jr., actor and model
- Mary Ann Mendoza, Sabine Durden, and Jamiel Shaw – parents of sons killed by illegal immigrants
- U.S. Representative Michael McCaul, Republican of Texas, chairman of House Homeland Security Committee
- David A. Clarke Jr., sheriff of Milwaukee County, Wisconsin and critic of Black Lives Matter movement
- U.S. Representative Sean Duffy, Republican of Wisconsin, former star of MTV's The Real World
- Rachel Campos-Duffy, spokeswoman for the Libre Initiative, a Koch brothers-funded Hispanic outreach group
- Darryl Glenn, County Commissioner in El Paso County, Colorado
- U.S. Senator Tom Cotton, Republican of Arkansas
- Karen Vaughn – mother of a Navy SEAL who was killed in Afghanistan
- U.S. Senator Jeff Sessions, Republican of Alabama
- Rudy Giuliani, former mayor of New York City
- Melania Trump, wife of Donald Trump – listed as headliner
- Michael T. Flynn, retired U.S. Army lieutenant general – listed as headliner
- U.S. Senator Joni Ernst, Republican of Iowa – listed as headliner
- Jason Beardsley of Concerned Veterans for America – listed as headliner
- U.S. Representative Ryan Zinke, Republican of Montana – listed as headliner
- Tuesday, July 19–"Make America Work Again"
- Sharon Day, co-chairwoman of the Republican National Committee
- Dana White, president of the Ultimate Fighting Championship
- Asa Hutchinson, Governor of Arkansas
- Leslie Rutledge, Arkansas Attorney General
- Michael Mukasey, former U.S. Attorney General
- Andy Wist, businessman – described as the "mystery man" of the convention and one of its most obscure speakers; Wist is president of a waterproofing company in the Bronx
- U.S. Senator Ron Johnson, Republican of Wisconsin
- Chris W. Cox, executive director, National Rifle Association Institute for Legislative Action
- Natalie Gulbis, professional golfer
- U.S. Senator Mitch McConnell, Senate majority leader, Republican of Kentucky
- U.S. Representative Paul Ryan, speaker of the United States House of Representatives, Republican of Wisconsin – Ryan's speech is in addition to his duties as official chair of the convention, a largely ceremonial role; he reportedly planned to tout his conservative House agenda and call for Republican unity in the speech.
- U.S. Representative Kevin McCarthy, House majority leader, Republican of California
- Chris Christie, Governor of New Jersey, candidate for the 2016 Republican presidential nomination.
- Tiffany Trump, Trump's daughter – listed as headliner
- Kerry Woolard, general manager, Trump Winery
- Donald Trump Jr., Trump's son – listed as headliner
- U.S. Senator Shelley Moore Capito, Republican of West Virginia – listed as headliner
- Ben Carson – retired neurosurgeon, candidate for the 2016 Republican presidential nomination – listed as headliner
- Kimberlin Brown, actor – listed as headliner
- Wednesday, July 20–"Make America First Again"
- Rick Scott, Governor of Florida
- Laura Ingraham, talk radio host
- Phil Ruffin, Las Vegas casino owner
- Pam Bondi, Florida Attorney General
- Eileen Collins, retired astronaut
- Michelle Van Etten — Van Etten was billed as "a small business owner employing more than 100,000 people" in the convention's official schedule, but she is in fact an independent retailer through a multi-level marketing firm who does not employ anyone
- Ralph Alvarado Jr., Kentucky state senator
- Darrell Scott, pastor, New Spirit Revival Center, Cleveland
- Harold Hamm, CEO of oil producer Continental Resources
- Scott Walker, Governor of Wisconsin, unsuccessful candidate for 2016 Republican presidential nomination
- Marco Rubio, U.S. Senator from Florida, candidate for the 2016 Republican presidential nomination
- Ted Cruz, U.S. Senator from Texas, candidate for the 2016 Republican presidential nomination
- Lynne Patton, Eric Trump Foundation – listed as headliner
- Eric Trump, Trump's son – listed as headliner
- Newt Gingrich, former speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives, and his wife, Callista – listed as "headliners"
- Mike Pence, Governor of Indiana and Republican vice-presidential nominee – listed as headliner
- Thursday, July 21–"Make America One Again"
- Jerry Falwell Jr., president of Liberty University
- Joe Arpaio, sheriff of Maricopa County, Arizona
- Pastor Mark Burns of South Carolina, labeled by Time Magazine as Trump's Top Pastor, led the Republican national convention in a "ALL LIVES MATTER" chant
- Fran Tarkenton, former NFL quarterback
- Brock Mealer, motivational speaker
- U.S. Representative Marsha Blackburn, Republican of Tennessee
- Mary Fallin, Governor of Oklahoma
- Lisa Shin, National Diversity Coalition for Trump
- Reince Priebus, chairman of the Republican National Committee
- Peter Thiel, Silicon Valley investor, venture capitalist, and co-founder of PayPal; the first openly gay speaker at a Republican national convention since Jim Kolbe in 2000 – listed as headliner
- Thomas J. Barrack Jr., chief executive of Colony Capital – listed as headliner
- Ivanka Trump, Trump's daughter – listed as headliner
- Donald Trump, Republican presidential nominee – listed as headliner
Of the 19 speakers billed as "headliners," six are members of the Trump family: Trump himself, his wife Melania and four of his children, Ivanka, Don Jr., Eric and Tiffany.
Notable speeches[edit | edit source]
These speeches received a significant amount of media attention.
Melania Trump's speech and plagiarism controversy[edit | edit source]
|"Melania Trump Remarks at Republican National Convention", July 18, 2016, C-SPAN|
|"Comparing Melania Trump's Speech in 2016 with Michelle Obama's in 2008", The Washington Post, July 19, 2016. Some portions of the two speeches were "very similar" and other parts were "nearly identical".|
Melania Trump's speech "almost immediately came under scrutiny when striking similarities were discovered between her speech" and Michelle Obama's speech at the 2008 Democratic National Convention. The Trump campaign at first denied allegations of plagiarism. Campaign manager Paul Manafort argued that the speech contained "not that many similarities" and the words used are not unique words "that belong to the Obamas."
Following Mrs. Trump's speech, various media outlets reported similarities as alleged plagiarism. Chris Harrick, Vice President of Marketing at the plagiarism prevention service Turnitin, discovered that Trump used about 6% of Michelle Obama's words and found two types of plagiarism, "clone" and "find and replace". Various media outlets suggested that members of Donald Trump's presidential campaign should respond to the accusations, which they did a few hours after the speech in the form of the following statement by the campaign's senior communications advisor, Jason Miller: "In writing [the] speech, Melania's team of writers took notes on her life's inspirations, and in some instances included fragments that reflected her own thinking. Melania's immigrant experience and love for America shone through in her speech, which made it a success."
Reince Priebus, chairman of the Republican National Committee, described the speech as "inspirational" but said if plagiarism were found, he thought "it certainly seems reasonable" to fire the person who wrote the speech. Paul Manafort, Donald Trump's campaign chairman, called it a "great speech" and said "obviously Michelle Obama feels very similar sentiments toward her family". He later said "to think that she would be cribbing Michelle Obama’s words is crazy", adding "This is once again an example of when a woman threatens Hillary Clinton, she seeks out to demean her and take her down. It's not going to work against Melania Trump." Sean Spicer, director of communications for the Republican National Committee, defended the speech by saying that similar statements have existed before her speech such as quotes by John Legend, Kid Rock, and Twilight Sparkle from My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic.
David Lauter of the Los Angeles Times stated that while these allegations are unlikely to cost Trump votes, the distraction is unhelpful, referring to it as a "lost opportunity" for the campaign.
On July 20, 2016, the Trump campaign issued a statement by Meredith McIver which included the following:
In working with Melania on her recent first lady speech, we discussed many people who inspired her and messages she wanted to share with the American people. A person she has always liked is Michelle Obama. Over the phone, she read me some passages from Mrs. Obama’s speech as examples. I wrote them down and later included some of the phrasing in the draft that ultimately became the final speech.
On July 20, two days after Melania's speech, McIver wrote that Donald Trump declined her offer to resign.
Chris Christie's speech[edit | edit source]
In the second night of the convention, Governor Chris Christie gave a speech in a style of a mock trial. After a series of accusations against Hillary Clinton to which his audience responded "guilty", the crowd chanted "lock her up". The crowd's reaction has received widespread coverage following the speech. The "lock her up" chant was later uttered by supporters of Bernie Sanders before the 2016 Democratic National Convention. Clinton responded to the chant in an interview on 60 Minutes by saying that it saddened her.
Ted Cruz's speech[edit | edit source]
In the third night of the convention, Senator Ted Cruz of Texas gave a speech in which he did not endorse Trump for president, and instead urged listeners to "vote your conscience, vote for candidates up and down the ticket who you trust to defend our freedom and to be faithful to the Constitution." Pro-Trump delegates were enraged at Cruz's speech, shouting him down and booing him off the stage, in what was described by the New York Times as "the most electric moment of the convention." Convention security personnel and Cruz advisor Ken Cuccinelli escorted Cruz's wife Heidi out of the hall, fearing for her safety. Newt Gingrich spoke after Cruz and said: "I had the text of what Ted Cruz was gonna say, and I thought it was funny," Gingrich said. "I mean, Ted gets up and he says, 'Look, vote your conscience for someone who will support the Constitution.' Well, in this particular election year, that by definition cannot be for Hillary Clinton." The following morning, Cruz attended a contentious meeting with delegates representing Texas that resulted in what CNN labeled "a remarkable 25-minute back-and-forth with his own constituents, defying appeals from his own Texas delegation to put the party above his inhibitions and back Trump."
Cruz's speech sparked a backlash and elicited negative reactions from prominent Republicans supporting Trump. New Jersey governor and former presidential candidate Chris Christie called the speech "awful" and "selfish." New York Congressman Peter T. King called Cruz a "fraud" and a "self-centered liar." Senator Dan Coats of Indiana responded that Cruz was a "self-centered, narcissistic, pathological liar." Representative Marsha Blackburn of Tennessee, when asked about Cruz's speech, responded that she "would tell [Cruz] the same thing I would tell my kids, ‘get over yourself.’" Susan Hutchison, chair of the Washington State Republican Party, confronted Cruz after his speech and labeled Cruz a "traitor to the party." In addition, Cruz was denied entry to influential Republican donor Sheldon Adelson's suite at the convention. Conservative radio host Rush Limbaugh speculated that Cruz was trying to mimic Ronald Reagan's speech at the 1976 Republican National Convention, in that "he wanted to deliver a speech that was Reaganesque in that the delegates would walk out of there thinking that they should have nominated him. He didn't get there." Instead, Limbaugh compared his speech to Ted Kennedy's at the 1980 Democratic National Convention, in which he failed to endorse President Jimmy Carter, the nominee, by putting his own interests ahead of the interests of the party. According to CNN, in the wake of Cruz’s non-endorsement of Trump at the RNC, his critics believe that an intraparty challenge could be possible. GOP donors and Texas politicians have asked Rep. Mike McCaul to run against him in the next cycle’s Texas primary in 2018. McCaul, a congressman for six terms and chair of the House Homeland Security Committee, has not yet made a decision but likewise has not yet ruled out a possible Senate run. Later, on September 23, 2016, Cruz publicly endorsed Trump for president.
Peter Thiel's speech[edit | edit source]
Peter Thiel, a billionaire PayPal co-founder and Silicon Valley investor, delivered a manifesto for tackling the greater issues of the day, focusing on technology, the economy and small government. Thiel also affirmed his pride to be "gay, a Republican and most of all an American", a stance that earned him a standing ovation, chanting "USA!". It was the first time in the history of Republican National Conventions that a speaker identified himself as gay in his speech, although there have been previous speeches by gay men.
Donald Trump's speech[edit | edit source]
File:Donald Trump’s acceptance speech RNC July 2016.webm Trump, having been formally nominated as the Republican presidential nominee on the second night of the convention, spoke on the fourth and final night of the convention. Trump's speech was leaked hours in advance by Correct the Record, a liberal-leaning Super PAC, though Trump had already given copies of his speech to the network press pool. Trump's daughter, Ivanka Trump, introduced Trump in a speech immediately before his own speech. "Here Comes the Sun" was used as the entrance music for Ivanka Trump. The George Harrison estate complained about the use of this song, which his family said was "offensive and against the wishes of the George Harrison estate."
Trump spoke for 75 minutes, making his speech the longest since at least the 1972 Republican National Convention and one of the longest acceptance speeches ever in major-party convention history. In his speech, Trump stated that America faces a "crisis" due to "attacks on our police" and "terrorism in our cities," and emphasized an important theme in his campaign: law and order. In evaluating the speech, Glenn Thrush of Politico noted the influence of Richard Nixon, Spiro Agnew, Ronald Reagan, and Rudy Giuliani, all of whom sounded similar themes earlier in American history in attempts to win over the "Silent Majority". Trump also promised to limit American participation in global crises and trade deals. When Trump turned to the subject of illegal immigration, many in the audience began shouting "Build the wall, build the wall,” referring to a signature promise of Trump's campaign to build a wall on the Mexico–United States border. Trump also repeatedly attacked President Barack Obama and the Democratic presumptive nominee, Hillary Clinton, arguing that the country and world had become less safe during their time in office. However, Trump attempted to reach out to supporters of defeated Democratic candidate Bernie Sanders, as well as down-and-out urbanites. In his speech, Trump also became the first Republican nominee to mention the LGBT community in a GOP nomination address, saying, "As your president, I will do everything in my power to protect our LGBTQ citizens from the violence and oppression of a hateful foreign ideology."
Reception[edit | edit source]
Philip Rucker and David Fahrenthold of the Washington Post found Trump's speech to be "relentlessly gloomy," and observed that Trump painted himself as an agent of change, while he cast Clinton as a defender of the status quo. Trump's speech was variously dubbed the "Mourning in America" speech and the "Evening in America" speech in reference to Ronald Reagan's more optimistic "Morning in America" campaign ad. Niall Stanage of The Hill argued that Trump's speech brought stability to a turbulent convention and showed Trump at his "most comfortable and energized." A Politico poll found largely positive reactions among "GOP political insiders" while Democrats argued that Trump's "dark" speech would prove damaging. The New York Post released a cover story the next day by Michael Goodwin praising Trump's speech, declaring it "the speech of his life," and also saying that the speech "could signal the start of an American revival." Ratings figures released by the major networks showed that approximately 32 million viewers watched Trump's speech, slightly ahead of the number that watched Mitt Romney's 2012 speech.
Some LGBT advocates critiqued Trump's reference to LGBT people, on the ground that it stood in contrast to positions he had taken on LGBT issues during the campaign; activists such as Chad Griffin of the Human Rights Campaign and Rick Zbur of Equality California suggested that the statement was an attempt to turn LGBT people against Muslims and pit minority groups against each other.
Polling[edit | edit source]
A Gallup survey found that 35% of Americans saw Trump's speech positively (either "excellent" or "good"), while 36% saw it negatively. According to Gallup, the speech had "the least positive reviews of any speech we have tested after the fact." 36% of Americans said the convention made them more likely to vote for Trump, while 51% said it made them less likely to vote for him. This is the highest "less likely to vote" percentage for a candidate in the 15 times Gallup has asked this question after a convention. It is also the first time in Gallup's convention polling that a Democratic or Republican convention has made more say that they are less likely to vote for the party's nominee.
According to a CNN/ORC poll, the public rendered a split decision on whether the convention made them more or less likely to back Trump, with 42% saying more likely while 44% saying less so. 40% called the speech "excellent or good," and about half of voters (45%) said Trump's speech reflected the way they feel about things in the U.S. today. However, some negative numbers included the fact that 18% called Trump's speech "terrible," which was the highest number recorded in that category by CNN since it first started to ask the question in 1996.
According to FiveThirtyEight, poll averages suggested a post-convention bounce of 3 to 4 percentage points for Trump.
Demonstrations[edit | edit source]
The number of demonstrators was significantly lower than expected, and according to Cleveland records, three of five officially permitted protests planned for the first three days of the convention did not occur. Lower-than-expected was attributed to a variety of factors, including "fear of violence from the police and fear of violence from the Trump supporters"; Cleveland's relatively small size compared to cities such as Chicago or New York; and a heavy police presence.
On July 18, the convention's first day, dueling anti-Trump and pro-Trump demonstrations took place at various places in Cleveland, attracting several hundred demonstrators each. The demonstrations were peaceful, with just two reported arrests.
On July 19, the convention's second day, peaceful protests continued. Demonstrators included those from groups such as the antiwar organization Code Pink and from the West Ohio Minutemen, a militia group. Three people were arrested for criminal mischief for climbing flag poles and hanging a banner at the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, bringing the total number of convention-related arrests to five. A brief scuffle between supporters of pro-Trump conspiracy theorist Alex Jones and anti-Trump protesters was quickly broken up by police. On July 21, the final day of the convention, Jones and Roger Stone interrupted a broadcast of Cenk Uygur's The Young Turks, leading to a confrontation between Jones, Stone, and Uygur.
On July 20, the convention's third day, seventeen people were arrested, and two officers sustained minor injuries. The International Business Journal reported: "News reports and videos circulated on social media about the increasingly tense nature of protests that have included activists from Black Lives Matter, the Ku Klux Klan and the Westboro Baptist Church, in addition to ardent supporters for Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton."
The demonstrations were generally peaceful. Some demonstrators expressed disappointment at the low turnout. In contrast, the 2016 Democratic National Convention saw a larger turnout and more arrests than the Republican Convention.
Viewership (10:00 to 11:45 PM Eastern)[edit | edit source]
Night 1[edit | edit source]
Total viewers[edit | edit source]
Viewers 25 to 54[edit | edit source]
Night 2[edit | edit source]
Total viewers[edit | edit source]
Viewers 25 to 54[edit | edit source]
Night 3[edit | edit source]
Total viewers[edit | edit source]
Viewers 25 to 54[edit | edit source]
Night 4[edit | edit source]
Total viewers[edit | edit source]
Viewers 25 to 54[edit | edit source]
See also[edit | edit source]
- 2016 Constitution Party National Convention
- 2016 Democratic National Convention
- 2016 Libertarian National Convention
- 2016 Green National Convention
- Republican National Convention
- Republican Party presidential candidates, 2016
- Republican Party presidential primaries, 2016
- Democratic Party presidential candidates, 2016
- Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2016
- United States presidential nominating convention
- History of the United States Republican Party
- List of Republican National Conventions
- Donald Trump presidential campaign, 2016
- 2016 U.S. presidential election
References[edit | edit source]
- Isenstadt, Alex (January 14, 2014) "GOP convention set for July 18–21 in 2016", Politico. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
- Walshe, Shushannah; Klein, Rick (July 8, 2014). "Republicans Choose Cleveland As 2016 Convention Site". ABC News. Retrieved July 27, 2014.
- "RNC officially approves Cleveland as 2016 convention host". CBS News.com (Associated Press). August 4, 2014. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/rnc-officially-approves-cleveland-as-2016-convention-host. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- Preston, Mark; Steinhauser, Paul (July 8, 2014). "Cleveland to hold 2016 Republican convention". CNN. Retrieved July 8, 2014.
- "The 2016 Republican Party Platform". GOP.com. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
- Ohlemacher, Stephen. "Things to Know About Delegates at Stake in Iowa Caucuses". ABC News. Retrieved February 2, 2016.
- "Election 2016: Presidential Primaries, Caucuses, and Conventions". Green Papers. February 10, 2016.
- Qiu, Linda. "5 questions you have about delegates, answered". PolitiFact.com. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
- Anderson, Meg. "RECAP: A Round-Up Of Can't-Miss Stories From The RNC". NPR. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
- Jaffe, Alexandra (January 23, 2015). "Democratic National Convention date set". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2015/01/23/politics/democratic-national-convention-date-set/. Retrieved August 25, 2015. "The July date is two months earlier than Democrats' 2012 convention, but it sets the Democrats up to immediately follow the GOP's festivities ... Republicans moved their convention back a month in hopes of avoiding the drawn-out primary battle that left the party fractured and their 2012 nominee wounded heading into the general election"
- Collins, Eliza. "Twitter, CBS News to livestream GOP and Democratic conventions". USA Today. Retrieved July 11, 2016.
- (April 2, 2014) "Denver makes latest cut for hosting 2016 Republican National Convention (RNC)., The Denver Channel. Retrieved April 2, 2014.
- "Cleveland, Dallas finalists to host 2016 Republican National Convention". The Chronicle. Associated Press (Lorain County, Ohio). June 25, 2014. http://chronicle.northcoastnow.com/national-news/2014/06/25/UPDATED-Cleveland-Dallas-finalists-to-host-2016-Republican-National-Convention.html.
- Wilson, Reid (July 8, 2014). "Republicans choose Cleveland for 2016 convention". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
- "The Host Committee". Cleveland 2016 Host Committee, Inc. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
- "Cleveland could vault into major leagues after hosting 2016 Republican National Convention, City Club panelists say (photos)". The Plain Dealer.
- "2016 Republican National Convention in Cleveland is a 'free-market economy' for event spaces". The Plain Dealer.
- Levingston, Ivan (July 12, 2016). "Corporations slash Republican convention funding". CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2016/07/12/corporations-slash-republican-convention-funding.html. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
- Romm, Tony (June 18, 2016). "Apple won't aid GOP convention over Trump". Politico. http://www.politico.com/story/2016/06/apple-wont-aid-gop-convention-over-trump-224513. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
- Martin, Jonathan; Haberman, Maggie (March 30, 2016). "Corporations Grow Nervous About Participating in Republican Convention". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/31/us/politics/donald-trump-republican-national-convention.html. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
- Caldwell, Leigh Ann (July 15, 2016). "GOP Convention Planners Sought $6 Million From Sheldon Adelson". NBC News. http://www.nbcnews.com/politics/2016-election/convention-planners-sought-6-million-sheldon-adelson-n610476. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
- To Prepare for Republican Convention, Tampa Restricts Protests. The New York Times. July 22, 2012
- Beres, Tom (March 28, 2016). "Cleveland police union, NAACP have RNC security concerns". WKYC.
- Gregory Krieg, Cleveland police union asks for suspension of 'open carry' in wake of Baton Rouge, ahead of RNC, CNN (July 17, 2016).
- Niraj Chokshi, Secret Service: We're not allowing firearms at the Republican National Convention, The Washington Post (March 28, 2016).
- Chiacu, Doina. "Secret Service says 'no' to guns at Republican convention". Reuters. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-usa-election-guns-idUSKCN0WU1PE. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- Faulders, Katherine. "Secret Service Will Not Allow Guns at GOP Convention Despite Petition for Open Carry". ABC News. Retrieved March 28, 2016.
- Smith, Kate (June 30, 2016). "Cities Bill Trump for the High Cost of Rallies". Bloomberg L.P.. https://www.bloomberg.com/politics/articles/2016-06-30/trump-rallies. Retrieved July 10, 2016.
- "Cleveland seeking to buy riot gear for Republican National Convention". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved April 15, 2016.
- Mary Kilpatrick, Guns allowed, water guns banned in the Republican National Convention event zone: Here's why, The Plain Dealer (June 1, 2016).
- Laura Bult, Water guns will be banned at Cleveland's Republican National Convention — firearms won't be, Daily News (New York) (July 1, 2016).
- Eliza Collins, Tennis balls, coolers, lasers: What's been banned at the RNC, USA Today (July 14, 2016).
- Sheil, Bill (March 30, 2016). "NAACP expresses concern over RNC security". WJW.
- Why hackers are targeting the GOP convention Archived July 13, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., by Rick Newman, on Yahoo!Tech, July 12, 2016.
- Russian government hackers penetrated DNC, stole opposition research on Trump, by Ellen Nakashima, in The Washington Post, June 14, 2016.
- Alexander Burns, On Eve of the Republican Convention, Law and Order Takes the Floor, The New York Times (July 17, 2016).
- Pearce, Matt (March 30, 2016). "This summer's Republican convention protests will be fueled by a volatile mix of forces". Los Angeles Times.
- Tobias, Andrew (May 19, 2016). "ACLU threatens to sue Cleveland over delay in acting on demonstration permits for Republican National Convention". The Plain Dealer. http://www.cleveland.com/rnc-2016/index.ssf/2016/05/aclu_threatens_to_sue_clevelan.html. Retrieved May 22, 2016.
- Mark Naymik, Philadelphia approves first DNC protest application while Cleveland continues to stall on RNC requests, The Plain Dealer (May 13, 2016).
- DuVall, Eric (June 14, 2016). "ACLU sues Cleveland over GOP convention protest restrictions". United Press International. http://www.upi.com/Top_News/US/2016/06/17/ACLU-sues-Cleveland-over-GOP-convention-protest-restrictions/2391466190609/?spt=hs&or=tn_us. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
- Tobias, Andres (May 20, 2016). "Three additional groups, including two anti-Trump groups, file for Cleveland protest permits during Republican National Convention". The Plain Dealer. http://www.cleveland.com/rnc-2016/index.ssf/2016/05/three_additional_groups_includ.html.
- Manu Raju & Deirdre Walsh, First on CNN: Top Republicans may skip GOP convention, CNN (April 12, 2016).
- Jeremy W. Peters, 'I Can Watch It on TV': Excuses for Republicans Skipping a Donald Trump Convention, The New York Times (June 1, 2016).
- Shushannah Walshe & Alexander Mallin, All But One Former GOP Nominee to Skip Republican National Convention, ABC News (May 5, 2016).
- Roarty, Alex (July 19, 2016). "At RNC, Portman Keeps Trump at a Distance". Roll Call. http://www.rollcall.com/news/politics/rnc-portman-keeps-trump-distance. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- "Nebraska Senator Will 'Take His Kids to Watch Some Dumpster Fires' Instead of Attending GOP Convention". Retrieved July 8, 2016.
- Werner, Erica; Jalonick, Mary Clare. "Large number of GOP senators skipping Trump's convention". Associated Press. Retrieved July 14, 2016.
- Jonathan Martin & Maggie Haberman, Corporations Grow Nervous About Participating in Republican Convention, The New York Times (March 30, 2016).
- Zachary Mider & Elizabeth Dexheimer, More Companies Opt to Sit Out Trump's Coronation in Cleveland, Bloomberg Politics (June 16, 2016).
- "Apple Won’t Be Funding The Republican Convention Because Of Trump". Buzzfeed News. Retrieved June 19, 2016.
- Sara Pompeo, 2016 RNC announces delegation seating arrangement, WKBN (July 16, 2016).
- 2016 GOP Convention Announces the Delegation Seating Arrangement (press release), 2016 Republican National Convention (July 16, 2016).
- Robert Wang, RNC notebook: Creighton sees Ohio's seating as 'punishment', Massillon Independent (July 17, 2016).
- Todd J. Gillman & Gromer Jeffers Jr., Payback time for Texas? Huge GOP delegation gets distant seats at Trump convention (July 16, 2016).
- "The Rules of the Republican Party" (PDF). August 8, 2014 [August 27, 2012]. p. 21. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 16, 2016. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
- O'Keefe, Eric; Rivkin, David (June 13, 2016). "Release the GOP Delegates". The Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/articles/release-the-gop-delegates-1465769777. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
- Tom Troy, GOP platform panel nixes LGBT reference: Complete text of document kept under wraps, Toledo Blade (July 13, 2016).
- Kyle Cheney, Meet the Rules Committee: 112 people who may decide the Republican nominee, CNN (March 14, 2016).
- "RNC Rules Committee, 2016". Ballotpedia. Retrieved June 21, 2016.
- Tal Kopan, RNC Rules Committee stocked with stalwarts, CNN (June 24, 2016).
- LoBianco, Tom; Kopan, Tal (June 17, 2016). "RNC delegates launch 'Anybody but Trump' drive". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2016/06/17/politics/delegate-unbinding-effort-organized/. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
- Bash, Dana; Raju, Manu (June 17, 2016). "How the GOP could cut ties with Donald Trump". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2016/06/16/politics/donald-trump-republican-anxiety/index.html. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
- Jaffe, Alexandra (June 17, 2016). "Campaign to Dump Trump at Republican Convention Emerges". NBC News. http://www.nbcnews.com/politics/2016-election/campaign-dump-trump-republican-convention-emerges-n594766. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
- Detrow, Scott. "'Never Trump Is Nevermore': Anti-Trump Forces Fail To Force RNC Floor Fight". NPR. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
- Josh Putnam, How the Republican Party made it harder for convention delegates to vote against Trump, The Washington Post (July 17, 2016).
- Igor Bobic, Fight Over LGBT Rights Spawns Last-Minute Drama At GOP Platform Committee, The Huffington Post (July 12, 2016)
- "Here's Another Possible Headache at the GOP Convention". Roll Call. April 13, 2016. Retrieved July 17, 2016.
- Daniel DiSalvo & James W. Ceaser, Do Party Platforms Still Matter?, The Atlantic (July 13, 2016).
- RNC Announces Platform Committee Leadership GOP.com
- Frank Lockwood, Wood picked for GOP's credentials committee, Northwest Arkansas Democrat Gazette (June 10, 2016) ("A Republican National Committee official has compared the contests committee to a trial court and the credentials committee to an appeals court.").
- Rebecca Berg, Obscure Panel May Have Big Effect on GOP Convention, RealClearPolitics (May 2, 2016) (The RNC Committee on Contests ... will evaluate challenges to convention delegates selected at the state level, with the power to recommend that delegates be de-certified by the convention Committee on Credentials.").
- RNC Announces Credentials Committee Leadership (press release), 2016 Republican National Convention (June 3, 2016).
- "Getting to Know the Committee on Arrangements". Cleveland2016. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
- Craig Gilbert, Cleveland GOP convention will have very Wisconsin flavor, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (July 13, 2016).
- Reid J. Epstein, GOP Group Promotes a Platform That Avoids Hot-Button Issues, The Wall Street Journal (July 14, 2016).
- Jeremy W. Peters, Emerging Republican Platform Goes Far to the Right, The New York Times (July 12, 2016).
- Steve Benen, Republican platform reflects the party’s far-right evolution, MSNBC (July 13, 2016).
- Leigh Ann Caldwell, Trump Campaign Supports GOP Platform That Moved Further Right, NBC News (July 12, 2016).
- "While Trump stays out of it, GOP platform tacks to the right on gay rights". Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-11-16.
- Peters, Jeremy W. (2016-07-12). "Emerging Republican Platform Goes Far to the Right". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/13/us/politics/republican-convention-issues.html.
- Clevel, Zeke J. Miller /. "Republican Platform Writers Contemplate Anti-Porn Provision". http://time.com/4401600/gop-platform-contemplates-anti-porn-provision-embrace-of-conversion-therapy/.
- CNN, Tal Kopan. "Social conservatives hold the line on day one in Cleveland". http://www.cnn.com/2016/07/11/politics/gop-platform-republican-convention-conservative-bathroom-lgbt-abortion/index.html.
- Kopan, Tal (July 11, 2016). "GOP platform draft declares pornography 'public health crisis". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2016/07/11/politics/gop-platform-republican-convention-internet-pornography/. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
- Katy Steinmetz, First Openly Gay Republican on GOP Platform Committee: 'Why Am I Even Here?', Time (July 13, 2016).
- Ryan F. Mandelbaum, Republican Party Wants to Privatize Public Land; Could include National Parks, Popular Science (July 15, 2016).
- Tracy Wilkinson (July 21, 2016). "In a shift, Republican platform doesn't call for arming Ukraine against Russia, spurring outrage". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/world/la-na-pol-ukraine-gop-20160720-snap-story.html. Retrieved 2016-07-25.
- Tal Kopan, Pro-LGBT Republicans look to force floor debate, CNN (July 12, 2016).
- Scott Bixby, Republican convention live: Republican National Convention ratifies party platform, The Guardian (July 18, 2016).
- Bump, Philip (April 15, 2016). "Here’s what happens to Republican delegates if no one clinches a majority before the convention". The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/04/15/heres-what-happens-to-republican-delegates-if-no-one-clinches-a-majority-before-the-convention/. Retrieved April 15, 2016.
- Epstein, Reid J.; McGill, Brian; Rust, Max (April 27, 2016). "Republican Convention’s Delegate Math Explained". The Wall Street Journal. http://graphics.wsj.com/elections/2016/rnc-convention-delegates/. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
- "RNC's 2016 Presidential Primary Estimated Delegate Count". Republican Party. April 6, 2016. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
- Steinhauer, Jennifer; Martin, Jonathan (April 12, 2016). "Paul Ryan Rules Out Run for President". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/13/us/politics/paul-ryan-to-ruleout-run-for-president-aide-says.html. Retrieved April 15, 2016.
- Tal Kopan & Tom LoBianco, Protests break out on convention floor after anti-Trump effort fails, CNN (July 18, 2016).
- Berg-Andersson, Richard E. "Republican Convention". The Green Papers. Retrieved June 9, 2016. "The Green Papers's "hard count" "consists of a count of the National Convention delegates as they are formally allocated to presidential contenders (or to the ranks of the 'Uncommitted') under the rules governing the selection of such delegates in each state or other jurisdiction."
- Berg-Andersson, Richard E. "Republican Pledged and Unpledged Delegate Summary". The Green Papers. Retrieved June 9, 2016. The "Green Papers's "soft count" reflects "the support for each presidential contender by either Pledged or Unpledged delegates- whether formally allocated yet or not- as best can be estimated by 'The Green Papers'; it could, conceivably change even day to day as presidential contenders might be forced out of the nomination race- perhaps releasing any delegates which might have already been formally allocated to them- or delegates once in the ranks of the 'Uncommitted' might begin to indicate support of a given presidential contender even before the National Conventions convene this Summer! Delegates listed as 'available' in the soft count, are 'not yet estimated'."
- "Republican Convention". thegreenpapers.com.
- Jeremy W. Peters & Alan Rappeport, Republican Convention: Floor Fighting on Day 1, The New York Times (July 18, 2016).
- Why Delegates Wanted a Roll Call Vote on the Rules Roll Call
- Sean Sullivan and Ed O'Keefe (July 18, 2016). "Republican National Convention: Brief chaos as anti-Trump delegates are rebuffed". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
- Chaos erupts on GOP convention floor after voice vote shuts down Never Trump forces Politico
- Caitlin Hillyard (July 18, 2016). "RNC Denies Roll Call Vote on Convention Rules Amid Floor Protests". C-SPAN. Retrieved July 18, 2016.
- Mike Lee Fights the RNC Machine The Weekly Standard
- Anti-Trump Factions Disrupt Vote at Republican Convention Bloomberg
- "Sen. Jeff Sessions nominates Trump for president". New York Post. Associated Press. July 19, 2016. http://nypost.com/2016/07/19/sen-jeff-sessions-nominates-trump-for-president/. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
- "Chris Collins will second Trump’s nomination for president". The Buffalo News. July 18, 2016. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
- "McMaster to nominate Trump at GOP convention". GreenevilleOnline.com. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
- Henderson, Barney; Graham, Chris (July 19, 2016). "Republican National Convention diary day 2: Donald Trump formally nominated as 2016 presidential candidate". The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/07/19/republican-national-convention-diary-day-2-trump-campaign-insist/. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
- Bump, Philip (July 19, 2016). "Donald Trump was just nominated with the eighth-lowest delegate percentage in Republican history". The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/07/19/donald-trump-was-just-nominated-with-the-eighth-lowest-delegate-percentage-in-republican-history/. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- "Republican National Convention 2016 live updates: Mike Pence says when Trump is elected 'the change will be huge'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
- Wren, Adam (July 15, 2016). "Did Trump Just Make a Huge Mistake?". Politico. http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2016/07/mike-pence-vp-donald-trump-indiana-214054. Retrieved July 16, 2016.
- Cook, Tony (July 19, 2016). "Gov. Mike Pence formally nominated as the Republican Party's vice presidential candidate". Indianapolis Star. http://www.indystar.com/story/news/politics/2016/07/19/indiana-formally-casts-its-votes-nominate-trump-republican-national-convention/87317966/. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- "Alaska Republicans 'shocked' to see all delegates counted for Trump". Associated Press. KTUU. http://www.ktuu.com/content/news/Alaska-Republicans-shocked-to-see-all-delegates-counted-for-Trump-387547651.html. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
- "Delegates Say Their Votes Were Changed Against Their Will To Nominate Trump". ThinkProgress. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
- Kopan, Tal; Payson-Denney, Wade. "Why Alaska's delegates were counted for Donald Trump". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2016/07/19/politics/alaska-delegates-donald-trump/index.html. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
- Corbett, Erin. "What Did Alaska Just Do At The RNC? Delegates Contested Their Recorded Votes For An Important Reason". Bustle.
- Hatch, Heidi. "Utah delegates react to RNC vote switch from Cruz to Trump". KUTV. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
- Stevenson, Seth (July 22, 2016). "My Quest to Find Jeb’s Delegates at the RNC: I imagined them as knights ready to do battle for their fallen hero. Here’s what I found instead". Slate.
- Philip Rucker, Trump promises 'showbiz' at convention, but stars on stage will be relatively dim, The Washington Post (July 13, 2016).
- Jeremy W. Peters, Speakers at Donald Trump's Convention: Tim Tebow, Peter Thiel, but No Sarah Palin?, The New York Times (July 13, 2016).
- Eli Stokols & Hadas Gold, Donald Trump's gold-plated convention: The celebrity billionaire is revamping everything about the GOP’s dog-and-pony show, Politico (May 18, 2016).
- Alex Isenstadt, Hardly anybody wants to speak at Trump's convention, Politico (June 27, 2016).
- Harper Neidig, Trump says he turned down offer to speak every night at convention, The Hill (July 1, 2016).
- Trump: I'll announce VP pick at convention, The Hill (May 5, 2016).
- David Jackson, Trump says he will announce running mate on Friday, USA Today (July 13, 2016).
- Maggie Haberman, Donald Trump Delivers a Long, Passionate Speech. He Introduces Mike Pence, Too., The New York Times (July 16, 2016).
- Jonathan Martin & Jeremy W. Peters, Scrambling, Planners of the Republican Convention Put ‘Showbiz’ Off to the Wings, New York Times (July 17, 2016).
- Kim Janssen, Ditka declines convention invite, slams Republicans for not getting behind Trump, Chicago Tribune (June 29, 2016).
- Tim Tebow: Speaking slot at Trump convention 'a rumor', Associated Press (July 14, 2016).
- Victor Mather, Tim Tebow Suggests He Won't Speak at Republican Convention, The New York Times (July 14, 2016).
- Julie Zauzmer, Ivanka Trump’s rabbi pulls out of Republican convention (July 15, 2016).
- Gabrielle Levy, Trump: No Endorsement, No Convention Speech, U.S. News & World Report (June 27, 2016).
- Gillman, Todd J. (July 17, 2016). "Trump adds Rubio, Rick Perry to convention lineup heavy with people named Trump". Dallas Morning News.
- Sara Murray, How the GOP is courting John Kasich, CNN (July 12, 2016).
- Jonathan Martin, Trump Campaign Denounces John Kasich in Ohio, Where Convention Begins, The New York Times (July 18, 2016).
- Kristen East, RNC 2016 schedule of events and speakers, Politico (July 17, 2016).
- Jonathan D. Salant, RNC 2016: Complete schedule, speakers, events, what to expect from GOP in Cleveland The Star-Ledger (July 17, 2016).
- Jasper Scherer, Meet Donald Trump's Prosperity Preachers, Fortune (July 19, 2016).
- Javier Panzar, Meet the televangelist who delivered the RNC's invocation, Los Angeles Times (July 18, 2016).
- Steve Benen, At this convention, even the benediction sparks controversy, MSNBC (July 19, 2016).
- Ryan Grim, Republican Convention Prayer Goes Completely Off The Rails, The Huffington Post (July 19, 2016).
- Philip Bump, Who is Andrew Wist, the mystery man speaking at the Republican convention?, The Washington Post (July 14, 2016).
- Danielle Kurtzleben, In Search of Andy Wist (Or, the 2016 GOP Convention Speakers, By the Numbers), NPR (July 14, 2016).
- Reilly, Katie (July 22, 2016). "Read Chris Christie's Convention Speech Attacking Hillary Clinton". TIME.com. http://time.com/4419974/chris-christie-republican-convention-speech/. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
- John Swaine, Trump backer speaking at RNC, billed as boss of 100,000, employs zero workers, The Guardian (July 18, 2016).
- Jason Johnson, In Search of the Church of Trump, The Root (March 24, 2016).
- "Meet Donald Trump's Top Pastor". TIME.com. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
- "Black pastor leads ‘all lives matter’ chant at GOP convention". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-02-10.
- Colin Lecher, Silicon Valley billionaire Peter Thiel will speak at GOP convention, The Verge (July 14, 2016).
- Sam Stein, An Openly Gay Speaker Will Address the GOP Convention for the First Time in 16 Years, The Huffington Post (July 14, 2016).
- Scherer, Michael (19 July 2016). "Melania Trump Uses Phrases From Michelle Obama's 2008 Convention Speech". TIME.com. http://time.com/4412175/republican-convention-melania-trump-michelle-obama/. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
- "Melania Trump Remarks at Republican National Convention". C-SPAN. July 18, 2016. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
- Tumulty, Karen; Costa, Robert; DelReal, Jose (July 19, 2016). "Scrutiny of Melania Trump's speech follows plagiarism allegations". The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/republican-national-convention-scrutiny-of-melania-trumps-speech-follows-plagiarism-allegations/2016/07/19/3efc4208-4da4-11e6-a7d8-13d06b37f256_story.html. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
- "Melania Trump Convention Speech and Transcript". 2016 Republican National Convention. Politicks.org. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
- Maggie Haberman, Alan Rappeport & Patrick Healy, Melania Trump's Speech Bears Striking Similarities to Michelle Obama's in 2008, The New York Times (July 19, 2016).
- Julian Routh, Paul Manafort Blames Hillary Clinton for Melania Trump Speech Plagiarism Allegation, The Wall Street Journal (July 19, 2016).
- "You decide: Did Melania plagiarize Michelle's '08 speech?". Fox News Channel. July 19, 2016. Retrieved July 21, 2016.
- Flores, Reena. "Manafort defends Melania Trump's convention speech after plagiarism charges". CBS This Morning. CBS News. Retrieved July 25, 2016.
- Engel, Pamela (July 19, 2016). "Melania Trump’s speech appeared to lift from parts of Michelle Obama's 2008 convention address". https://www.businessinsider.com/melania-trump-takes-center-stage-night-one-gop-convention-2016-7. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
- Allen, Cooper (July 19, 2016). "Was Melania Trump's speech plagiarized from Michelle Obama?". USA Today. http://amp.usatoday.com/story/87278088/. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
- Collins, Eliza (July 19, 2016). "Professors say Melania's speech would count as plagiarism". https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/onpolitics/2016/07/19/professors-weigh-in-melania-speech-plagiarism/87296008/. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- Korn, Melissa; Belkin, Douglas (July 20, 2016). "Was Melania Trump Speech ‘Common Words’ Or Plagiarism? Professors Parse". Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/articles/was-melania-trump-speech-common-words-or-plagiarism-professors-parse-1468982640. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
- Leight, Elias (July 19, 2016). "Melania Trump Accused of Plagiarizing Michelle Obama Speech". Rolling Stone.
- Johnson, Ted (July 19, 2016). "RNC Chairman Reince Priebus: It'd be 'reasonable' to fire Melania Trump's speechwriter". Boston Herald. http://www.bostonherald.com/news/us_politics/2016/07/rnc_chairman_reince_priebus_itd_be_reasonable_to_fire_melania_trumps. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
- Haberman, Maggie; Rappeport, Alan; Healy, Patrick; Martin, Jonathan (July 19, 2016). "Questions Over Melania Trump's Speech Set Off Finger-Pointing". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/20/us/politics/melania-trump-speech.html. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
- Tatum, Sophie (July 19, 2016). "RNC official cites 'My Little Pony' to defend Melania Trump". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2016/07/19/politics/sean-spicer-melania-trump-my-little-pony/. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
- David Lauter (July 19, 2016). "Why the plagiarism allegations against Melania Trump matter for her husband's campaign". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/politics/la-na-pol-melania-trump-plagiarism-accusations-20160719-snap-story.html. Retrieved July 19, 2016.
- The Trump Organization. Letter. Meredith McIver. July 20, 2016.
- Haberman, Maggie (July 20, 2016). "Melania Trump’s Speechwriter Takes Responsibility for Lifted Remarks". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/21/us/politics/melania-trump-speech-meredith-mciver.html. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- Diamond, Jeremy (July 20, 2016). "Trump aide offers resignation in Melania Trump plagiarism incident". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2016/07/20/politics/trump-aide-offers-resignation-in-melania-trump-plagiarism-incident/index.html. Retrieved July 20, 2016.
- Imbert, Fred (July 20, 2016). "‘Lock her up’: Chris Christie leads mock trial of Hillary Clinton". CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2016/07/19/lock-her-up-chris-christie-leads-mock-trial-of-hillary-clinton.html. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
- Correspondent, Chris Moody, CNN Senior Digital (July 19, 2016). "The RNC's unofficial slogan: 'Lock her up'". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2016/07/19/politics/hillary-clinton-republican-convention-chants/. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
- Gabbatt, Adam; Roberts, Dan (July 25, 2016). "'Lock her up': Sanders supporters adopt Trump's attack line on Clinton". the Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/jul/25/lock-her-up-sanders-trump-clinton-chant. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
- Press, Associated (July 24, 2016). "The Latest: Clinton Saddened by GOP's 'Lock Her Up' Chants". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/aponline/2016/07/24/us/politics/ap-us-dem-2016-convention-the-latest.html. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
- "Jeers and Boos: Transcript of Ted Cruz's Speech". Roll Call. 21 July 2016. http://www.rollcall.com/news/politics/transcript-ted-cruz-convention-speech. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
- Patrick Healy & Jonathan Martin Ted Cruz Is Booed When He Refuses to Back Donald Trump at Convention, The New York Times (July 20, 2016).
- Karen Tumulty & Sean Sullivan, Day 3 of Republican convention: Pence accepts nomination; sought-for unity falls short, The Washington Post ().
- Politico, Newt Gingrich found Ted Cruz's speech 'funny', By Donovan Harrell, 07/21/16
- "Defiant Ted Cruz stands by refusal to endorse Trump after being booed during convention speech". CNN. July 22, 2016. http://www.cnn.com/2016/07/20/politics/ted-cruz-republican-convention-moment/. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
- "Why not endorse Trump? I'm not 'a servile puppy dog' Cruz tells Texas delegation". CNN. July 21, 2016. http://www.cnn.com/2016/07/21/politics/ted-cruz-texas-delegation-meeting/index.html. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
- "Cruz faces backlash over Trump snub". The Hill. July 21, 2016. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
- "Ted Cruz's RNC appearance triggers backlash". WCVB. July 21, 2016. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
- "Even After Republican Backlash, Ted Cruz Won’t Endorse Trump ‘Like A Servile Puppy’". The Huffington Post. July 21, 2016. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
- "'Condemned to Republican hell': Ted Cruz faces GOP knives for anti-Trump message at RNC speech". Business Insider. July 21, 2016. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
- "Republicans unleash how they really feel about Ted Cruz's speech". CNN. July 21, 2016. http://www.cnn.com/2016/07/21/politics/ted-cruz-reaction-convention-speech/. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
- "Sen. Dan Coats calls Ted Cruz a 'self-centered, narcissistic, pathological liar'". The Indianapolis Star. July 21, 2016. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
- "Everything I Learned About Women at the Republican National Convention". Jezebel. July 22, 2016. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
- "Marsha Blackburn channels Taylor Swift, tells Ted Cruz to 'shake it off'". The Tennessean. July 21, 2016. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
- "State GOP Chair Susan Hutchison: Cruz a 'traitor to the party'". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. July 21, 2016. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
- "Ted Cruz rebuffed by Adelsons after he refuses to endorse Donald Trump". The Washington Post. July 21, 2016. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
- Limbaugh, Rush (July 21, 2016). "Cruz Couldn't Pull Off a Reagan in '76". The Rush Limbaugh Show. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- Raju, Manu (2016-08-08). "Following RNC speech, Cruz critics urge McCaul to mount primary challenge - CNNPolitics.com". Cnn.com. Retrieved 2016-12-16.
- Theodore Schleifer, Gloria Borger and Dana Bash (September 23, 2016). "Ted Cruz endorses Donald Trump". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2016/09/23/politics/ted-cruz-endorses-donald-trump/.
- Peter Thiel, Full Speech, 2016 Republican National Convention. RNC. July 21, 2016. 3:53 minutes in.
- Taylor, Harriet (July 22, 2016). "Thiel's Trump speech gets thumbs up from Silicon Valley Republicans". CNBC. https://www.cnbc.com/2016/07/22/thiels-trump-speech-gets-thumbs-up-from-silicon-valley-republicans.html.
- "A gay Silicon Valley billionaire just made GOP history at the RNC". CNN. July 22, 2016. http://edition.cnn.com/2016/07/21/politics/peter-thiel-gay-republican-national-convention/.
- "Billionaire Peter Thiel Speaks at GOP Convention". Wall Street Journal. July 21, 2016. https://www.wsj.com/articles/billionaire-peter-thiel-speaks-at-gop-convention-1469155232. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- Borchers, Callum (July 21, 2016). "How did Donald Trump’s convention speech get leaked in advance?". The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-fix/wp/2016/07/21/how-did-donald-trumps-speech-get-leaked-in-advance/. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- Serfaty, Sunlen (July 22, 2016). "Ivanka Trump delivers in prime-time". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2016/07/21/politics/ivanka-trump-republican-convention-speech/. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- Owen, Paul; Bixby, Scott (July 23, 2016). "'The greatest asset Trump has': Ivanka gets rave reviews for Cleveland speech". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/jul/22/ivanka-trump-republican-national-convention-speech. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
- Healy, Patrick; Martin, Jonathan (July 21, 2016). "His Tone Dark, Donald Trump Takes G.O.P. Mantle". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/22/us/politics/donald-trump-rnc-speech.html. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- Thrush, Glenn (July 22, 2016). "5 takeaways from Donald Trump's convention speech". Politico. http://www.politico.com/story/2016/07/rnc-2016-donald-trump-speech-takeaways-226003. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- "Trump: Bernie never had a chance". CNN. July 22, 2016.
- Lederman, Josh (July 22, 2016). "Making GOP History, Trump Vows to Protect LGBTQ Community". ABC News. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
- Rucker, Philip; Fahrenthold, David (July 22, 2016). "Donald Trump positions himself as the voice of ‘the forgotten men and women’". The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/in-speech-at-republican-national-convention-trump-to-paint-dire-picture-of-america/2016/07/21/418f9ae6-4fad-11e6-aa14-e0c1087f7583_story.html. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- Sabato, Larry (July 22, 2016). "Clinton-Kaine: A Not-So Surprising Ticket". University of Virginia. http://www.centerforpolitics.org/crystalball/articles/clinton-kaine-a-not-so-surprising-ticket/. Retrieved July 23, 2016.
- "Evening in America," The Washington Free Beacon. July 21, 2016.
- Stanage, Niall (July 22, 2016). "Trump closes convention with stabilizing speech". The Hill. http://thehill.com/blogs/ballot-box/presidential-races/288836-trump-closes-convention-with-stabilizing-speech. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- Shepard, Steven (July 22, 2016). "GOP insiders: Trump nailed it". Politico. http://www.politico.com/story/2016/07/gop-convention-trump-caucus-226000. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- Goodwin, Michael (July 22, 2016). "Donald Trump's RNC address could mark the start of an American revival". The New York Post. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- Grynbaum, Michael (July 22, 2016). "Republican Convention Falls Short of TV Ratings Expectations". The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/23/us/politics/rnc-ratings-trump.html. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- Chris Johnson (July 22, 2016). "Trump makes history with LGBT inclusion in acceptance speech". Washington Blade. http://www.washingtonblade.com/2016/07/22/trump-makes-history-lgbt-inclusion-acceptance-speech/. "But Trump’s pledge to protect LGBT people against terrorism stands in contrast to positions on LGBT rights he has staked out on the campaign trail. ... But Trump’s pledge to protect LGBT people against terrorism stands in contrast to positions on LGBT rights he has staked out on the campaign trail."
- Zbur, Rick; al-Marayati, Salam (February 27, 2017). "Trump's Despicable Plan to Turn LGBTs Against Muslims" (in en). The Advocate. http://www.advocate.com/commentary/2017/2/27/trumps-despicable-plan-turn-lgbts-against-muslims. "During the Republican convention last year, then-candidate Trump claimed in typically hyperbolic language that 'as your president, I will do everything in my power to protect our LGBT citizens from the violence and oppression of a hateful foreign ideology.' But what about a hateful domestic ideology? Notably, virtually all of Trump's inner circle and Cabinet picks are virulently anti-LGBT and anti-equality."
- Inc., Gallup,. "For First Time, Trump's Image on Par With Clinton's". Retrieved 2016-07-27.
- "More people watched Donald Trump’s convention speech than Hillary Clinton’s — and hated it". Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-08-02.
- Inc, Gallup. "Americans More Positive About Democratic Than GOP Convention". Gallup.com. Retrieved 2016-08-01.
- Director, Jennifer Agiesta. "Trump bounces into the lead". CNN. http://www.cnn.com/2016/07/25/politics/donald-trump-hillary-clinton-poll/index.html.
- "Election Update: Why Our Model Is Bullish On Trump, For Now". 2016-07-28. Retrieved 2016-07-28.
- Scott Malone & Daniel Trotta, They held a convention in Cleveland, and (so far) few protesters came, Reuters (July 22, 2016).
- Yamiche Alcindor & Matt Flegenheimer, Peaceful, Dueling Protests So Far as G.O.P. Convention Begins, The New York Times (July 18, 2016).
- Ann Domeck & Lorrie Taylor, Cleveland police chief: 5 arrests since the start of the RNC, strong message for masked protestors, WJW (July 19, 2016).
- Tracy Connor, Jacob Rascon & Tom Winter, RNC in Cleveland: Scuffle Escalates Tensions But Calm Maintained, NBC News (July 19, 2016).
- Aubrey Whelan, Outside RNC, Infowars web site host Alex Jones gets in scuffle with anti-Nazi group, Philadelphia Inquirer (July 19, 2016).
- Feldman, Josh (July 21, 2016). "Alex Jones, Roger Stone Crashed the Young Turks Broadcast and Everyone Went Nuts". Mediaite. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- Bruce Wright, Cleveland Police Assaulted, RNC Protesters Arrested as Demonstrations Rage on Day 3 of Republican National Convention, International Business Times (July 20, 2016).
- Gupta, Prachi (July 22, 2016). "Meet the 63-Year-Old Woman Who Crashed Donald Trump's Speech at the RNC". Cosmopolitan. Retrieved July 22, 2016.
- "RNC Protests Rage, but Anti-Trump Organizers Ask: Where Is Everyone?". US News World Report. July 26, 2016. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
- "Protesters at Republican National Convention are ‘extremely disappointed with turnout’". Raw Story. July 26, 2016. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
- Geoff Mulvihill & Megan Trimble (July 25, 2016). "DNC protests in Philadelphia dwarf those outside RNC in Cleveland". Associated Press.
[edit | edit source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2016 Republican National Convention.|
- Trump Nomination Acceptance Speech for President at RNC at The American Presidency Project
- Official website of the Committee on Arrangements for the 2016 Republican National Convention
- Official website of the Cleveland 2016 Host Committee
- C-SPAN videos (and transcripts) of all of the speeches
- Video of Trump nomination acceptance speech for President at RNC (via YouTube)
- Audio of Trump nomination acceptance speech for President at RNC
- Video of Pence nomination acceptance speech for Vice President at RNC (via YouTube)
- 2016 Republican National Convention materials in the Digital Gallery from Cleveland Public Library
|This article uses material from 2016 Republican National Convention on Wikipedia, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (view authors).|